1750-1900 Modern Era

Alex smith, 1st period

1793 Chinese reject British request for open trade

  • Who: King George III and Emperor Qianlong
  • What: Chinese reject Britians requests for trade
  • When: 1793
  • Where: England and China
  • Why: Britain wanted to open up its trade to Chinese for more goods

1798 Napoleon invades Egypt

  • Who: Napoleon, Ottoman Empire, and Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti
  • What: The French invade the Ottoman Empire and rushed through Cairo
  • When: 1798
  • Where: Cairo, Egypt
  • Why: The French were taking advantage of the Ottoman Empire being weak

1830s Famine and rebellions in Japan

  • Who: Japanese people and Emperor
  • What: Was a period of disruption in Japan during the Edo period
  • When: 1833-1837
  • Where: Japan
  • Why: These incidents mainly happened because of the corruption of officials

1838 Commissioner Lin

  • Who: Commissioner Lin
  • What: He opened the opium trade to China but then banned it and confiscated it after seeing how addictive it was.
  • When: 1838
  • Where: China
  • Why: Lin tried to save China but got involved in disputes with England about Opium because they were China's suppliers and this caused the Opium Wars.

1838-1842 First Opium war in China

  • Who: China and England
  • What: It was a war over the Opium trade
  • When: 1838-1842
  • Where: China and Europe
  • Why: China didn't want to import it anymore because of the disruption it was causing

1838-1876 Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire

  • Who: Ottoman empire
  • What: Reforms were established to recentralize the state
  • When: 1838-1876
  • Where: China
  • Why: They wanted to become a more centralized state and westernize

1842 Unequal Treaties

  • Who: China and Britain
  • What: Britain imposed treaties on China that were unfair to the Chinese
  • When: 1842
  • Where: China
  • Why: Britain wanted global power so they opened ports and imposed restrictions on Chinese Sovereignty

1850-1864 Taiping uprising in China

  • Who: Chinese peasants
  • What: It was a Chinese peasant upheaval
  • When: 1850-1864
  • Where: China
  • Why: The cause of the upheaval was because they didn't agree with the religious beliefs in China

1856-1858 Second Opium War

  • Who: China and Britain
  • What: The second opium war between China and Britain
  • When: 1856-1858
  • Where: China
  • Why: China was still rejecting Britain trying to Import Opium

1853 Admiral Perry arrives in Japan

  • Who: Admiral Perry
  • What: Perry forcefully demanded that Tokyo opens up ports with the west
  • When: 1853
  • Where: Japan
  • Why: He was trying to get Japan to open up trade and have more "normal" relations with the world

1600-1850 Tokugawa Japan

  • Who: people of Tokugawa
  • What: Tokugawa was in a period of urbanization and economic growth until the 1830s
  • When: 1600-1850
  • Where: Tokugawa, Japan
  • Why: Since they were so isolated, they started to fall behind with technology and people didn't agree with the shoguns decisions. This caused corruption and the shogun lost power.
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1911-1949 Informal empires

  • Who: China and Ottoman Empire
  • What: China's collapse of the imperial system happened in 1911 that led to a revolutionary upheaval. The fall of the Ottoman Empire resulted in the creation of Turkey.
  • When: 1911-1949
  • Where: China and modern day Turkey
  • Why: Both empires were behind technologically and lost wars to more modernized countries.
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1860s-1870s Self strengthening movement

  • Who: China's conservative leaders and landlords
  • What: It was a strengthening movement for the modernization of China that eroded privileges for the landlords
  • When: 1860s-1870s
  • Where: China
  • Why: It was to modernize China and keep them updated but fell because of the boxer uprising in 1898-1901

1898-1901 Boxer uprising

  • Who: Militia organization known as the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists
  • What: an uprising of Northern Chinese people against the self strengthening movement
  • When: 1898-1901
  • Where: Northern China
  • Why: they felt that the self strengthening movement was corrupt and they didn't want foreigners running their country.

Chinese revolution of 1911

  • Who: Chinese imperial order and revolutionaries
  • What: It was a revolution that took advantage of the collapsing Chinese government and caused a struggle for the whole country.
  • When: 1911
  • Where: China
  • Why: People were tired of the old examination system and didn't like the idea of a national parliament.

The sick man of Europe

  • Who: The Ottoman Empire
  • What: The Ottoman Empire was refered to as the "sick man of Europe" because it was falling apart within Europe and because of European nations.
  • When: 1914
  • Where: Europe (Ottoman empire)
  • Why: Surrounding European nations saw a weakness to the Ottomans so they took advantage. They invaded provinces of the Ottomans and took them over.
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Young Ottomans

  • Who: Ottomans
  • What: The young Ottomans were Ottomans loyal to the dynasty that wanted to keep it alive. They made changes to the Ottoman political system to try and keep it alive.
  • When: 1865
  • Where: Modern day Turkey
  • Why: They wanted to keep the dynasty alive because they wanted to preserve the state from European aggression

Sultan Abd al-Hamid II

  • Who: Sultan Abd al-Hamid II
  • What: The sultan accepted a constitution and an elected parliament, but under the pressure of war with Russia, he suspended the reforms.
  • When: 1876
  • Where: Turkey
  • Why: since he was at war with Russia, he decided to suspend the reforms and reverted to the older style of rule. He decided to make himself the Caliph, successor of the Prophet, and the protector of Muslims.

Young Turks

  • Who: Young Turks
  • What: It was a political reform movement in the early 20th century favoring replacement of the absolute monarchy of the Ottoman Empire with a constitutional monarchy.
  • When: 1908
  • Where: Turkey
  • Why: The Turks didn't agree with the absolute monarchy and wanted to change it to a constitutional monarchy.

Meiji Restoration

  • Who: Emperor Meiji
  • What: Restored practical imperial rule to Japan.
  • When:1868
  • Where: Japan
  • Why: Consolidated the political system under the Emperor of Japan.

Russo-japanese war 1904-1905

  • Who: Russia and Japan
  • What: Russia was planning on expanding their territory and Japan didn't agree on it so they fought over it.
  • When: 1904-1905
  • Where: Japan
  • Why: Russia wanted some ports controlled my Japan and this resulted in a war.
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