Byzantine Empire and Russia

Timeline

Rurik takes control of Novgorod

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700s-800s

  • Vikings steered their long ships out of Scandinavia
  • Rurik was the prince of the Rus, (a Varangian tribe)
  • He begain his rule of Novgorod in the North
  • After he died, Rus lands expanded to include Kiev, which later became their capital

Vladimir I converts to Christianity

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957

  • Princess Ogla of Kiev converted Byzantine Christianity
  • Her grandson, Vladimir spread the new religion widely
  • He married the sister of a Byzantine emperor
  • Also, made Ortohdox Christinaty the religion of the Rus
  • This caused the Russians to adopt Byzantine art, music, and architecture
  • He began to align the kingdom culturally

Reign of Yaroslav the Wise and introduction of the Pravada Russkia

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1016-1054

  • He won military victories and spread Christianity like his father, Vlamimir
  • He set up close ties between church and state
  • He also gave legal status to the Church
  • He had many religious texts translated into the Slavic language
  • He made imrpovements to the city and issued a written law code

Invastion of Polovtsy

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1054

  • The Polovtsy repeatedly attacked Russian territory
  • The first clash between the Polovtsy and the Russians was in 1054
  • They believed in the existence of good and evil spirits and erected stones, statues in memories of their dead
  • The polovtsy in twelfth century turned into various crafts such as: blacksmithing, furrieiy, shoemaking, saddlemaking, bow clothes

Invasion of Mongols

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1236-1241

  • Batu, the grandson of Genghis, led Mongol armies into Russia
  • They tolerated the Russian Orthodox Church
  • It brought peace to the land between China and Eastern Europe.
  • The invaders were known in Russia as the Tatars
  • The Golden Horde was founded and became virtually independent of the Mongol Empire

Moscow becomes the most powerful Russian principality

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1380

  • The princess of Moscow increased their power
  • The city was loated near important river trade routes
  • It became Russia's political center and religious center when it became the capital
  • They defeated the Golden Horse at the battle of Kulikovo
  • This caused the Mongols strength to reduce

Reign of Ivan the Great

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1462-1505

  • Ivan the Great brought much of northern Russia under his rule
  • He recovered Russian territory that had fallen into the hands of neighboring Lithuania
  • He built the framework for absolute rule and tried to limit the power of the great landowning nobles (boyars)
  • He referred to himself as tsar, or Caesar

Reign of Ivan the Terrible

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1547

  • The first Russian ruler officially crowned tsar
  • He limited the privileges of the old boyar families and granted land to noble in exchange for military or other services
  • He introduced new laws that tied Russian serfs to the land
  • He killed his own son and organized the oprichniki (agents of terror who enforced the tsar's will)
  • The oprichniki slaughtered rebellious boyars and sacked towns where people were suspected of disloyalty
  • He introduced Russia to a tradition of extreme absolute power that would shape Russian history

Positive Effects of Byzantine culture

  • Cyril and Methodius adapted the Greek alphabet so they could translate the Bible into Slavic tongue
  • This Cyrllic alphabet became the written script that is used today in Russia, Ukraine, Serbia, and Bulgaria
  • They adopted the onion-looking domes
  • They gave them a way to communicate with the rest of the world and within the empire

Negative Effects

  • The Russians converted all of the Slavs to Christianity