MS Cardiovascular system

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heart and blood vessels

• The heart is divided into four chambers, the left and right atria and the left and right ventricles.

• The right side of the heart collects oxygen-poor blood from the body and pumps it into the lungs, where it

releases carbon dioxide and picks up oxygen.

• The left-side carries the oxygen-poor blood back from the lungs into the left side of the heart, which then

pumps the oxygen-poor blood to the rest of the body.

• The valves in the heart prevent blood from flowing backward into the heart.


• Blood type is determined by the presence or absence of certain molecules, called antigens, on the surface of

red blood cells (RBCs).

• There are four blood types; A, B, AB, and O.

• If a person receives the wrong blood type, antibodies in the recipient’s blood will attack the antigens on the

RBCs in the donor blood.

• Sickle-cell disease is a blood disease that is caused by abnormally-shaped hemoglobin, and important blood


• Anemia is a disorder caused by a lack of hemoglobin in the blood.

health of the cardiovascular system

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health of the cardiovascular system

• Blood pressure is the force put on the walls of blood vessels by circulating blood.

• The force put on the walls of arteries is called blood pressure.

• Blood pressure is measured by an instrument called a sphygmomanometer.

• In the United States, the healthy ranges for systolic pressure is less than 120 mm Hg and a diastolic pressure

of less than 80 mm Hg.

• Hypertension occurs when a person’s blood pressure is always high.

• A cardiovascular disease (CVD) is any disease that affects the cardiovascular system. Atherosclerosis, coronary

heart disease, and stroke are examples of CVDs.

• Cardiovascular diseases are lifestyle diseases. Having a poor diet and not getting enough exercise are two

major causes of CVD.