States of Matter

By: Lizzy Edwards

Facts about Solids....

Solids are a substance or object that is solid rather than liquid or fluid. They are one of the three states of matter and, unlike liquids or gases, they have a definite shape that is not easy to change. Different solids have particular properties such as stretch, strength, or hardness that make them useful for different jobs. Most solids are made up of tiny crystals. This is because their particles are arranged in a regular pattern, called a crystalline structure.

Examples of Solids....

  • Water to ice : Water becomes cold enough that it turns into ice.
  • Liquid to crystals : Most liquids freeze by a process that is known as "crystallization," whereby the liquid forms into what is known in the scientific world as a "crystalline solid."
  • Rocks etc.

Facts about Liquids....

A liquid has a consistency like that of water or oil; flowing freely but not constant volume. As water flows along a river, it constantly changes its shape to fit the space available. This is because water is a liquid, and liquids flow and do not have a fixed shape. Instead, they take on the shape of whatever container they are in. If you pour a liquid from a glass onto a plate, the volume of liquid (the space it takes up) stays the same, but its shape changes. A liquid also is a matter in which the molecules are close together and move around slowly.

Examples of Liquids....

  • Water (or any drinks)
  • Oil
  • Ice melting
  • Honey etc.

Facts about Gases....

Gases are an air like fluid substance which expands freely to fill any space available irrespective of its quantity. They are all around us, but although many, such as perfume, can be smelt most gases are invisible. Like liquids, gases can flow but, unlike solids or liquids, gases will not stay where they are put. They have no set shape or volume, and they expand in every direction to fill completely whatever container they are put into. If the container has no lid, the gas escapes.

Examples of Gases....

  • Oxygen (O) - (pure gas)
  • Helium
  • Hydrogen
  • Nitrogen (N) etc.

Facts about Plasma....

Plasma is an ionized gas, a gas into which sufficient energy is provided to free electrons from atoms or molecules and to allow both species, ions and electrons, to coexist. As far as we know, plasmas are the most common state of matter in the universe. A plasma is a gas that has been energized to the point that some of the electrons break free from, but travel with, their nucleus. Gases can become plasmas in several ways, but all include pumping the gas with energy. A spark in a gas will create a plasma. A hot gas passing through a big spark will turn the gas stream into a plasma that can be useful.

Examples of Plasma....

  • Lightning
  • Solar wind
  • Aurorae
  • Welding arcs etc.

Facts about Bose-Einstein Condensate....

Bose-Einstein Condensate is a state of matter that forms below a critical temperature in which all bosons in the matter fall into the same quantum state. Also called super atom. In 1995, two scientists, Cornell and Weiman, finally created the condensate. It's a dilute gas of bosons cooled temperatures very close to absolute zero. Under such conditions, a large fraction of bosons occupy the lowest quantum state, at which point macroscopic quantum phenomena become apparent.

Examples of Bose-Einstein Condensate....

  • Boson
  • Rubidium
  • Lithium etc.