chemistry of life

Niya Adams and Todd Paige

Water

Water stores heat: Water heats more slowly and retains heat longer than many substances. For example, you know that when we sweat, we cool down. This is because the water lost through sweat carries the heat away from our bodies.

-Water bonds to itself: This is called cohesion, where substances of the same kind are attracted to each other (water sticks to water, like drops of water on a plant).

-Water bonds to other substances: Water can also bond to substances other than itself; this is called adhesion, the attraction between different substances. An example is how water drops stick to a window.

-Polarity: Water is polar, which means that its water molecules have an uneven distribution of charge. Some parts of the molecules are negatively charged, while another is positively charged. Because it has an imbalance of charges, it is attracted to ions (which are charged molecules) and other polar molecules (uneven + uneven = even).

-pH of water: "The pH of pure water is neutral, or 7. When an acid (pH less than 7) dissolves in pure water, hydrogen ions are formed. When a base (pH more than 7) dissolves in pure water, hydroxide ions are formed". (cited from water properties)

-Density of water: Water is less dense when it is frozen. For example this is why ice floats.

-Surface tension: Water molecules go to together ( link up) at the surface of water to form covalent bonds. This prevents the surface of water from breaking easily. "You can test this by floating a paper clip on water. Normally, the paper clip should sink because its density is higher than that of water; however surface tension keeps it up."(water properties)

-Non-polar substances do not dissolve well in water: Like said, water is polar. Polar does not mix with non-polar. For example, oil is nonpolar. When you put oil in water, you can see it forms circles or little bubbles in the water. This is because when the oil goes into water, the water molecules are more attracted to each other than to the oil molecules.WATER IS MORE DENSE THAN OIL IS which makes the oil go up to the top So, the oil molecules are shoved together.


Marcomolecule

There are many different types of macromolecules. There are monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.

Monosaccharides- Its function is to be a basic source of energy. Examples are glucose and fructose (fruit and sugar).

Disaccharides- Its function is to also be a basic source of energy. Examples are sucrose (table sugar).

Oligosaccharides- The function for this is to be a cellular sign post. An example is fructo-oligosaccharides

Carbohydrates

any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods and living tissues and including sugars, starch, and cellulose. They contain hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water (2:1) and typically can be broken down to release energy in the animal body.(google) examples of carbohydrates are

Proteins

There are many types of proteins , such as enzymes proteins that catalyze chemical and biochemical reactions within living cell and outside. This group of proteins probably is the biggest and most important group of the proteins. Enzymes are responsible for all metabolic reactions in the living cells. Well known and very interesting examples are: DNA- and RNA-polymers etc. transport proteins are as well another protein , These proteins are transporting or store some other chemical compounds and ions. Some of them are well known electron transport oxygen transport; albumin fatty acid transport in the blood stream etc.Antibodies - proteins that involved into immune response of the organism to neutralize large foreign molecules, which can be a part of an infection. Sometimes antibodies can act as enzymes. Structural proteins - These proteins are maintain structures of other biological components, like cells and tissues. Collagen, elastin, α-keratin, sclerotic, fibroin - these proteins are involved into formation of the whole organism body. Bacterial proteoglycans and virus coating proteins also belongs to this group of proteins. Currently we do not know about other functions of these proteins. Motor proteins. These proteins can convert chemical energy into mechanical energy. (Google) Some examples are


There are many different types of proteins. Here are some examples of some proteins. There are keratin, elastin, collagen, enzymes, hemoglobin, and many more.



Lipids

Each type of lipid has a slightly different structure, but they all possess a large number of C - H bonds makes them a primarily non-polar group of molecules. All the C-H bonds also makes them very Energy-rich. On the function for lipids is that of Energy storage. Lipids contain a lot of calories in a small space. Since Lipids are generally insoluble in polar substances such as water, they are stored in special ways in you body's cells. Lipids can also function as structural components in the cell. The types of lipids are fatty acids saturated and unsaturated


Nucleic Acids

There are two main types of nucleic acids which are: Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA), found mainly in the nucleus of the cell and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA), which is found in the cell although it is frequently found in the nucleus.the functions of nucleic acids are


Nucleic acids are biological molecules found in a life. DNA and RNA are two types of nucleic acids. The main function of nucleic acids is to store and transmit genetic material.

Enzymes


  1. Enzymes are a substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.An enzyme-substrate complex forms when the active site binds with the substrate. The shape of the it enzyme must match the shape of the substrate. Enzymes are therefore very specific; they will only function correctly if the shape of the substrate matches the active site. The temperature and the oh level affect it because if the temp is too high it melts the enzymes