Chapter 11 Project
BY: Steph Skala, Braeden Gefert, DJ Wolf, Dasianae Byres
Restructuring of Government
The Consulate was the government of France from the fall of the Directory in 1799. This was before the Napoleonic empire. French military disasters in 1798 and 1799 were starting to destroy the Directory. The new government was composed of three parliamentary assemblies: the Council of State and they drafted the bills, The Tribunate was not able to vote on the bills but instead debated them, and the Legislative Assembly could not discuss the bills, but members voted on them after reviewing the Tribunal's debate record. Napoleon created a huge army. He was the first to develop artillery for use on the front line. He also used very heavy cavalry to break enemy lines and split them into smaller groups so it would be easier to defeat them. Unfortunately most of his army died of starvation and Napoleon lost in the war. Napoleon raised an army once he got back to France and surrounded the court building and threatened to destroy it if the people did not come up with a better form of government. This allowed him access to power, and he took it. Napoleon's civil code that was roman in nature and dictated every aspect of French Society.
Before- Promotions were given based on birth not by talent or skill. People that were born into aristocracy could excel through the ranks. People that were not part of the upper class couldn’t change their class. Changing your class was near impossible for these “unlucky people.”
Changes- Promotions were given based on talent. This is what the middle class wanted before the Revolution. Now a person with the right talent could change their class or occupation. This made it fair to the hardworking people. A more rewarding job was now achievable. Napoleon also made a new aristocracy based on merit in the state service. He created positions in the nobility and the middle class.
With the Revolution- The promotions idea that is based on talent went with the Revolution. The middle class had been asking for this idea for years. The aristocracy sort of went against the Revolutionary ideas. The people wanted every citizen to be equal, but this gave people who served in the military a title of nobility. The nobility in France was not wanted in France around this time.
Impact- The new aristocracy did not have a lasting impact on France. However, the promotions based on talent did. In most of world, occupation is based on education or talent. France accepted this idea during his time and still do.
Before napoleon people disliked the power of the church so the government banned and took away all religious building and areas including schools run by churches causing the creation of government run primary and secondary schooling. In 1793 the Committee of Public Instruction removed the catholic church from the educational system. This created more focus on training the teachers and the creation of a more uniform education for the students.What he created was Establishment of the University of France to maintain uniformity in the education system. School was now open to everyone. Four grades of school were set up; primary, secondary and lycées (schools run on military lines) and technical schools. Schools stressed the importance of obedience and military values. primary education remained almost as it had been before 1789. Math and science were more important classes in primary and secondary schools These changes were in line with the ideas of the french revolution ideas because there was more equality among the people because now everyone could go to school and not just certain people.Yes this had a big impact on how schools would be run and how the students would be taught. The teachers learned a new way to teach and the teachers were getting better training themselves. The more uniform learning style is the better and more impactful way that they did and have learned.
Before the revolution, France didn't have a single set of laws. They had almost 300 different legal systems. During the revolution, there were efforts made to prepare a single law code for the entire nation, however Napoleon brung the work to completion in the seven codes of law.
The Civil code ( Napoleonic code) preserved most of the gains of the revolution by recognizing the principle of the equality of all citizens before the law, right of individual to choose a profession, religious toleration, and the abolition of serfdom and feudalism. Napoleon created an aristocracy based on merit in the state service. He also built an Empire.
The civil code made it harder for women to obtain divorces. They were treated as minors, and their testimony was less reliable than a man’s.Some of his ideas were great and based on equality, but Napoleon destroyed some of the revolutionary ideas.
Napoleon’s changes and reforms did not have a legacy beyond his rule. “ Only Napoleon’s memory would continue to haunt French political life”.
Concordat of 1801
Before- The French Revolution leaders before Napoleon wanted France to not have a religion or at all in the country. Most people didn’t accept this idea, but instead of doing something absurd the people of France just ignored this idea.
Changes- Napoleon made an agreement with the church which is called the Concordat of 1801. The church agreed to be the official religion of France, didn’t receive their lands that were taken away.
With the Revolution- This was totally against what the revolution wanted. The leaders wanted there to be no religion in the country, although many people were against this. Napoleon disagreed with these leaders and restored Catholicism back to France.
Impact- The impact did have an impact on France. Catholicism remained the official religion until France made religion not matter in the country.