Circulatory System

Function of the Circulatory System:

The function of this system is to deliver oxygen, nutrient molecules, hormones, the removal of carbon dioxide, ammonia and other metabolic wastes. This system has blood vessels called, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins.

Difference between arteries, capillaries, and veins

Arteries - They carry the blood away from the heart. The main artery is the aorta.

Capillaries - They carry the blood away from the body and exchange nutrients, waste, and oxygen with tissues at cellular level.

Veins - These are blood vessels that bring the blood back to the heart and drain blood from organs and limbs.

Route of blood through heart:

Blood enters the right atrium from the superior and inferior venae cavae, and the coronary sinus. From the right atrium, it goes through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. From the right ventricle, it goes through the pulmonary semilunar valves to the pulmonary trunk. From the pulmonary trunk it moves into the right and left pulmonary arteries to the lungs. From the lungs, oxygenated blood is returned to the heart from the pulmonary veins. From the pulmonary veins, blood flows into the left atrium. From the left atrium, blood flows through the bicuspid valve into the left ventricle. From the left ventricle, it goes through the aortic semilunar valves into the ascending aorta. Blood is distributed to the rest of the body from the aorta.

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Composition of blood:

Blood is classified as a connective tissue and consists of two main components: Plasma, which is extracellular fluid, Formed Elements, which are made up of the blood cells and platelets. The formed elements are named this because they are enclosed in a plasma membrane and have a definite structure and shape. All of these are cells except platelets, which are tiny fragments of bone marrow cells. These are: erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells), and platelets.

Major disorders in the circulatory system:

Arteriosclerosis - Occurs when blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients from your heart to the rest of your body become thick and stiff, sometimes restricting blood flow to your organs and tissues. This can be caused by high blood pressure, high cholesterol, high triglycerides, smoking and other source of tobacco, diabetes and inflammation from diseases such as arthritis, lupus, or infections. Some symptoms are chest pain/pressure, numbness/weakness in arms and legs, leg pain, and kidney failure.

Hypertension - This is a common condition in which the force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease. This can be caused by kidney problems, adrenal gland tumors, thyroid problems, certain defects in blood vessels, certain medications, illegal drugs, alcohol abuse or chronic alcohol use, and/or obstructive sleep apnea. Some symptoms include dull headaches, dizzy spells or a few more nosebleeds than normal, these don't occur until high blood pressure reaches a severe or life threatening stage.

Endocrine System

The endocrine system is made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones, chemical substances produced in the body that regulate the activity of cells or organs. These hormones regulate the body's growth, metabolism (the physical and chemical processes of the body), and sexual development and function.

Homeostasis - the tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes. For an organism to function normally and effectively, it is necessary that the biochemical processes of its tissues operate smoothly and conjointly in a stable setting. The endocrine system provides an essential mechanism called homeostasis that integrates body activities and at the same time ensures that the composition of the body fluids bathing the constituent cells remains constant.

The control of blood sugar (glucose) by insulin is another good example of a negative feedback mechanism. When blood sugar rises, receptors in the body sense a change . In turn, the control center (pancreas) secretes insulin into the blood effectively lowering blood sugar levels. Once blood sugar levels reach homeostasis, the pancreas stops releasing insulin.

Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin, a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy.

  • Increased thirst

  • Frequent urination

  • Bedwetting in children who previously didn't wet the bed during the night

  • Extreme hunger

  • Unintended weight loss

  • Irritability and other mood changes

  • Fatigue and weakness

  • Blurred vision

  • In females, a vaginal yeast infection

in 2012, 29.1 million Americans, or 9.3% of the population, had diabetes.

  • Food

  • Exercise

  • Stress

  • Emotions and general health

Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body's important source of fuel.

  • Increased thirst

  • Increased hunger (especially after eating)

  • Dry mouth

  • Frequent urination

  • Unexplained weight loss (even though you are eating and feel hungry)

  • Fatigue (weak, tired feeling)

  • Blurred vision

  • Headaches

  • Loss of consciousness (rare)

Diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes in the United States. Total:29.1 million people or 9.3% of the population have diabetes. Undiagnosed:8.1 million people (27.8% of people with diabetes are undiagnosed).

is caused by a failure of the body to make or properly use its own insulin, a hormone needed for blood sugar control, there are many treatment plans for type 2 diabetes without insulin replacement.

Skeletal System


The skeletal system performs vital functions — support, movement, protection, blood cell production, calcium storage and endocrine regulation — that enable us to move through our daily lives

Bones: Provide a hard framework for stability and acts as levers (3rd class) to facilitate movement

Ligaments: Holds bones together

Muscles: Provide the force required for movement by moving one bone (point of insertion) in relation to another (point of origin)

Tendons: Connect muscles to bones

Nerves: Motor neurons provides the stimulus for muscle movement and co-ordinates sets of antagonistic muscles

Bone cancer can be primary bone cancer or secondary bone cancer. Primary bone cancer started in the bone; the cancer initially formed in the cells of the bone, while secondary cancer started elsewhere in the body and spread to the bone.

  • b. Bone pain.

  • Swelling and tenderness near the affected area.

  • Broken bone.

  • Fatigue.

  • Unintended weight loss.

c. The number of new cases of bone and joint cancer was 0.9 per 100,000 men and women per year based on 2007-2011 cases.

  • d. Surgery is the usual treatment for bone cancer. ...

  • Chemotherapy is the use of anticancer drugs to kill cancer cells. ...

  • Radiation therapy, also called radiotherapy, involves the use of high-energy x-rays to kill cancer cells.

  1. a malignant progressive disease in which the bone marrow and other blood-forming organs produce increased numbers of immature or abnormal leukocytes. These suppress the production of normal blood cells, leading to anemia and other symptoms.

  • Fever or chills

  • Persistent fatigue, weakness

  • Frequent or severe infections

  • Losing weight without trying

  • Swollen lymph nodes, enlarged liver or spleen

  • Easy bleeding or bruising

  • Recurrent nosebleeds

  • Tiny red spots in your skin (petechiae)

  • Excessive sweating, especially at night

  • Bone pain or tenderness

  • An estimated combined total of 156,420 people in the US are expected to be diagnosed with leukemia, lymphoma or myeloma in 2014.

  • New cases of leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma are expected to account for 9.4 percent of the estimated 1,665,540 new cancer cases diagnosed in the US in 2014.

Maintenance therapy

Induction therapy

Muscular System


The main function of the muscular system is movement. Muscles are the only tissue in the body that has the ability to contract and therefore move the other parts of the body. Related to the function of movement is the muscular system's second function: the maintenance of posture and body position.
  • Localized or widespread pain that can worsen with movement.

  • Aching or stiffness of the entire body.

  • The feeling that your muscles have been pulled or overworked.

  • Fatigue.

  • Sleep disturbances.

  • Twitching muscles.

  • The sensation of "burning" in your muscles.

c. Musculoskeletal diseases affect more than one out of every two persons in the United States age 18 and over, and nearly three out of four age 65 and over. Trauma, back pain, and arthritis are the three most common musculoskeletal conditions reported, and for which health care visits to physicians’ offices, emergency departments, and hospitals occur each year. Physical or occupational therapy.

  • Using a splint to immobilize the affected joint and allow healing.

  • Using heat or cold.

  • Reducing workload and increasing rest.

  • Reducing stress through relaxation and biofeedback techniques.

  • Acupuncture or acupressure.

Nervous System


The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the body. Together, these organs are responsible for the control of the body and communication among its parts.

Alzheimer's disease

  1. a. progressive mental deterioration that can occur in middle or old age, due to generalized degeneration of the brain. It is the most common cause of premature senility.

  • b. Depression

  • Anxiety

  • Social withdrawal

  • Mood swings

  • Distrust in others

  • Irritability and aggressiveness

  • Changes in sleeping habits

  • Wandering

  • Loss of inhibitions

  • Delusions, such as believing something has been stolen

c. An estimated 5.2 million Americans have Alzheimer's disease in 2014,

  • d. Cholinesterase inhibitors (Aricept, Exelon, Razadyne). ...

  • Aricept is the only treatment approved by the FDA for all stages of Alzheimer's disease: mild, moderate, and severe. ...

  • Namenda. ...

  • Namzaric.


Muscular: overactive reflexes, paralysis of one side of the body, difficulty walking, stiff muscles, problems with coordination, or paralysis with weak muscles

Visual: sudden visual loss, double vision, temporary loss of vision in one eye, or blurred vision

Sensory: numbness, pins and needles, or reduced sensation of touch

Speech: speech loss, difficulty speaking, or slurred speech

Limbs: weakness or numbness

Facial: muscle weakness or numbness

Whole body: lightheadedness, vertigo, balance disorder, or fatigue

The only FDA approved treatment for ischemic strokes is tissue plasminogen activator (tPA, also known as IV rtPA, given through an IV in the arm). tPA works by dissolving the clot and improving blood flow to the part of the brain being deprived of blood flow.

Reproductive System


  1. The purpose of the organs of the male reproductive system is to perform the following functions: To produce, maintain, and transport sperm (the male reproductive cells) and protective fluid (semen) To discharge sperm within the female reproductive tract during sex.

  2. Spermatogenesis is the process of making sperm cells, or developing immature germ cells known as spermatogonia into mature sperm cells called spermatozoa. A sperm cell is the male reproductive cell that fertilizes the female egg in sexual reproduction. A male’s ability to reproduce depends on a high quality and quantity of sperm; therefore, spermatogenesis occurs continually from the time of puberty until death. The stages included in this process are spermatocytogenesis, spermatidogenesis, and spermiogenesis.

3. is the creation of an ovum (egg cell). It is the female form of gametogenesis; the male equivalent is spermatogenesis. It involves the development of the various stages of the immature ovum. During oogenesis, the cytoplasm is unevenly divided during each meiotic division. This results in one egg and three polar bodies. Here is why: Egg cells must contain enough supplies to synthesize all the products needed by the developing embryo until the embryo implants into the uterine wall. Implantation does not occur until 7-10 days after fertilization. Thus, the unequal division of the cytoplasm ensures the egg has enough supplies for this time period.

Yeast infection

A fungal infection typically on the skin or mucous membranes caused by candida

  • b. Itching in the vaginal area and around the vulva (the opening of the vagina)

  • Burning in the vaginal area

  • Swelling of the vulva

  • White/gray vaginal discharge that may be thick (sometimes described as looking like cottage cheese)

  • Burning during urination

  • Pain with sexual intercourse

  • d. Short-course vaginal therapy. A one-time application or one-to-three-day regimen of an antifungal cream, ointment, tablet or suppository effectively clears a yeast infection in most cases. ...

  • Single-dose oral medication.

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