RECOMBINANT DNA

What is rDNA

Recombinant DNA is the term used to describe the combination of two DNA strands that are constructed artificially
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What is a plasmid and how does it relate to rDNA

A plasmid is a genetic structure in a cell that can replicate independently of the chromosomes. Plasmids are much use in laboratory manipulation of genes. Plasmids relate to rDNA because plasmid is the the circular double stranded part in DNA. It helps in the cell division.

How is Recombinant DNA created? What is rDNA technology?

DNA from a donor organism or biological source is first extracted from cells and then subjected to a cutting process known as enzymatic restriction. This generates fragments of DNA that contain the gene or genes of interest. These fragments can then be "cloned" or stuck onto fragments from the recipient organism. They are next inserted into larger DNA molecules ("plasmids"), which are placed into a bacteria and allowed to multiply. The recombinant DNA is then recovered and verified. How they put the rDNA in the cell or gene clone is done in very precise steps.


First step, DNA Isolation.DNA must first be extracted and purified from other cellular molecules, such as ribonucleic acids (RNAs), proteins, and structures such as cell membranes. For cloning purposes, DNA is obtained from the nucleus and is known as genomic DNA. Once this is precipitated and cleaned of all other unwanted contaminants, the DNA can be cut into fragments.


Next step is Restriction enzymes, Restriction enzymes are enzymes that cut up very specific DNA sequences; they are used to create unique DNA fragments. This process ensure that no inaccurate, incorrect, or unwanted sequences are generated and become accidentally incorporated into the final recombinant DNA, which can result in both experimental failure and cell death. To generate the desired DNA fragments, a specific single (or combination of) enzyme(s) is used to cut up or digest the DNA. The fragments are then purified by gel electrophoresis, which separates them from the unwanted DNA.


Then DNA Ligation, Ligation is the process of sticking or joining together the donor and recipient (or vector) DNA fragments to create a recombinant DNA molecule. Ideally, the restriction enzymes chosen to create the fragments would have been very carefully thought out and designed such that they allow these bits to be put together like a jigsaw puzzle.


Then the last step rDNA replication the process of transformation or heat shock is used to put the recombinant DNA molecule into a host bacterial cell, which can then generate many copies of the synthetic DNA. These bacteria are grown on agar plates, cultured up in special bacterial broths, and then lysed in order to release the recombinant DNA. Finally, the DNA can be verified by DNA sequencing, functional experiments.What is rDNA technology? Is a series of procedures that are used to join together DNA segments.

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Applications of rDNA technologies. Why is it important? How does it affect society?

Five applications 1. Molecular biology 2. Molecular diagnosis of diseases 3. Monoclonal antibodies 4. Gene therapy 5. Production of vaccines.

This is important because it can save lives, and even make you healthier. It affects society because it can help health, if you like organic foods you can thank rDNA. Organic food and drinks is a result of Recombinant DNA.

Controversy over transgenic animals

Transgenic animals is a genetically modified animal example a glo fish, fish different colors that it shouldn't be but is because of recombinant DNA.The controversy of animals like this is, Is it tampering with nature? I don't think so because it show new things that you wouldn't see in the wild and it doesn't hurt the animal.

Transgenic animals

Transgenic animals are animals that have a foreign gene deliberately inserted into their genome. First transgenic animal made available to the American public was the Glo Fish, fish genetically engineered to make them shine in bright fluorescent colors. This is related to Recombinant DNA because DNA that is cut using specific enzymes so that a gene or a DNA sequences of can be inserted, to make the fluorescent colors
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References

Lodish, H. (n.d.). Retrieved April 04, 2016, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21498/


Owyoung, P. (n.d.). How Is Recombinant DNA Made? Retrieved April 04, 2016, from http://www.ehow.com/about_6193032_recombinant-dna-made_.html


Some of the Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology are as follows. (n.d.). Retrieved April 04, 2016, from http://www.preservearticles.com/2011120818251/some-of-the-applications-of-recombinant-dna-technology-are-as-follows.html


Transgenic Animals: Tampering with Nature? (n.d.). Retrieved April 04, 2016, from http://theviewspaper.net/transgenic-animals-tampering-with-nature/