An Overview of Cloning
The Technology of Cloning by Alex Ortiz and Brennan Martin
Molecular or Gene Cloning
Molecular or gene cloning is the process of creating genetically identical DNA modules. This discovery applies to virtually all applications in biotechnology from drug discovery and development to the production of transgenic crops all depend on gene cloning. Molecular cloning helped researchers identify localizing and characterizing genes, creating genetic maps and sequencing entire genomes basis of these traits.
Animal Cloning has improved livestock herds all over the world for more than two decades. Dolly the sheep was the first cloned animal, they considered her a scientific breakthrough not because she was a clone but because the source of the genetic material used to produce Dolly was an adult cell, not an embryo cell.
This sort of cloning is the old fashioned way. This replicates the natural way of making identical twins, just in a petri dish, not a womb. What they do is they split an early embryo into two parts and then allow each part to divide and develop on its own. After that they're inserted into the mother's womb.
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
For this process, instead of using a germ cell they use a somatic cell, which is any cell other than those used for a reproduction(a sperm cell or an egg cell) To make Dolly, they took a somatic cell from an adult female sheep to an egg cell that had it's nucleus removed. Animal cloning provides many benefits, it helps produce livestock with superior characteristics and helps zoo researchers to save endangered species. It also can provide excellent animal models for studying genetic diseases and other conditions such as aging and cancer.