Chapter 4

Where Atoms Come From: "We Are All Star Stuff

By: Hunter Tufts

Synopsis

In this chapter they are talking about the formation and elemental ratios in the universe. They talk about the elements characteristics. The book talks about Iron, Neon, Lead, Iridium, and Rhenium. Such as how uranium breaks down into most of the lead we have on earth. The book also talks about how the ratios of elements on Earth are the same as in the rest of the universe.

The book talks about how the elements, such as neon, react differently on Jupiter than Earth. On Jupiter the neon falls out of the sky like red rain. It also talks about a stars life. The book says that the last element in a natural stars life to form is Iron. It also talks about how the dinosaurs went extinct and why it was the elements that caused it.

Iron

  • Iron's symbol is Fe (The Disappearing Spoon, Ch. 4)
  • The atomic mass is 55.845 (The Disappearing Spoon, Ch. 4)
  • The atomic number is 26 (The Disappearing Spoon, Ch. 4)
  • Period 4
  • Group 8
  • Electron Configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3d6
  • This element is a transition metal
  • Iron is found in nature, it has been found on Earth in large deposits in Greenland. It is found in its many compounds and the compounds are found almost everywhere (Nave).
  • Iron is a essential element to both plant and animals, and it carries oxygen in hemoglobin. Also people have been on the prowl for Taconite for commercial ore (Los Alamos, 2016).
  • Named after the Latin word ferrum. The discoverer is undetermined. Iron is found almost anywhere, for example the Sun and the Earth's core (Los Alamos, 2016).
  • Iron is very reactive chemically and corrodes rapidly, and it has four allotropic forms known as alpha, beta, gamma, and omega (Los Alamos, 2016).
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Neon

  • Neon's symbol is Ne (The Disappearing Spoon, Ch. 4)
  • The atomic number is 10 (The Disappearing Spoon, Ch. 4)
  • The atomic mass is 20.180 (The Disappearing Spoon, Ch. 4)
  • Period 2
  • Group 18
  • Electron Configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6
  • This element is a noble gas
  • Very rare on Earth, only found in trace amounts in the atmosphere (Molina).
  • Neon is used in neon signs and is not the most important element to human existence (Molina).
  • Neon was discovered in 1898 by Sir William Ramsay and Morris M. Travers. Named after the Greek word "neos" (Molina).
  • This element is completely stable and a bright light.
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Lead

  • Lead's symbol is Pb (The Disappearing Spoon, Ch. 4)
  • The atomic number is 82 (The Disappearing Spoon, Ch. 4)
  • The atomic mass is 207.2 (The Disappearing Spoon, Ch. 4)
  • Period 6
  • Group 14
  • Electron Configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p2
  • This element is classified as an other metal
  • Lead is found in nature, and is found in many locations, such as the Southwestern United States, etc. (Calvent, 2004).
  • Lead is used in lead-acid storage batteries, covering cables, bearing alloys, artistic pigment and glazes, decorative glass, chemical industry, and in bullets. It is important in our everyday needs but harmful to the human body (Calvent, 2004).
  • Lead was founded in the ancient times. There are no people responsible for this discovery (Calvent, 2004).
  • Lead has one of the highest densities of the metals of 11.3437 g/cm^3, also lead anneals itself at room temperature (Calvent, 2004).
  • Source: Calvent, J. B. (2004, May 29). Lead, Retrieved from http://mysite.du.edu/~jcalvert/phys/lead.htm
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Iridium

  • Iridium's symbol is Ir (The Disappearing Spoon, Ch. 4)
  • The atomic mass is 192.217 (The Disappearing Spoon, Ch. 4)
  • The atomic number is 77 (The Disappearing Spoon, Ch. 4)
  • Period 6
  • Group 9
  • Electron Configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d7
  • This element is a transition metal
  • Iridium occurs in nature with the elements of family 10 (Los Alamos, 2016).Iridium is found in the crust from when the massive comet hit the Earth and destroyed the dinosaurs (The Disappearing Spoon, Ch. 4).
  • Used as a hardening agent for platinum, creating devices that require high heat, and for electrical contacts (Los Alamos, 2016).
  • Tennant discovered iridium in 1803. The name comes from the Latin word "Iris" meaning rainbow. Found in the areas of crude platinum residue is found (Los Alamos, 2016).
  • White with a slightly yellow cast, it is very hard and brittle, and it is the most corrosion resistant metal known (Los Alamos, 2016).
  • Source: Los Alamos National Laboratory (2016). Lead, Retrieved from http://periodic.lanl.gov/77.shtml
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Rhenium

  • Rhenium's symbol is Re (The Disappearing Spoon, Ch. 4)
  • The atomic number is 75 (The Disappearing Spoon, Ch. 4)
  • The atomic mass is 186.207 (The Disappearing Spoon, Ch. 4)
  • Period 6
  • Group 7
  • Electron Configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d5
  • This element is a transition metal
  • Rhenium only occurs at .001 ppm in the Earth's crust, and is found by it's self (Los Alamos, 2016).
  • It is used as rhenium-molybdenum as filaments for mass spectrographs and ion gauges. It is used in electrical contact because its resistance to high arc corrosion, and rhenium is used as rhenium wire in photo flash lamps (Los Alamos, 2016).
  • Discovered in 1925 by Noddack, Tacke, and Berg. It was found in platinum ore, columbite, gadolinite, and molybdenite. Named after the Latin word "rhenus." (Los Alamos, 2016)
  • Rhenium is silvery white with a metallic luster, very high density and melting point, and the commercial form is powder (Los Alamos, 2016).
  • Source: Los Alamos National Laboratory (2016). Rhenium, Retrieved from http://periodic.lanl.gov/75.shtml
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Summary

In the book he talked about iron, neon, lead, iridium, and rhenium. In the book he talked about how the last element a normal star will create is iron, then the star runs out of energy/ dies. He tells us that neon is found in Jupiter atmosphere and when it falls it looks like bright red rain. He also tells us about how the lead isotopes are made. This is by uranium decay and the decay is how most of the lead on Earth is formed. He tells us that iridium is only found in the crust where archaeologist found dinosaur bones. He concluded that the iridium came from the asteroid that killed the dinosaurs. He says that rhenium is found in the same area as iridium and they told scientist about asteroids destroying the Earth.