An observable reaction to a stimulus by an organism.
Nature v Nurture
- Include life functions.
Nurture is the idea that behaviors are environmental and come from experiences.
- Actions that need to be practiced.
- A newborn organism is born knowing how to cry and suckle.
A Fixed Action Plan is an unchangeable action that must be carried out to its finish and is triggered by a sign stimulus.
- Greylag Goose rolls any circular object into the nest because of programmed response to protect eggs that roll away from the nest.
To search widely or obtain food or provisions from a place.
The loss of response to a stimuli when it is shown to be unimportant.
Young animals recognize and attach to an object immediately or soon after birth.
- Deer learning that more food is found near water.
- Prairie dogs will "scream" when humans are first introduced. But after enough exposure they will stop.
Classical v Operant Conditioning
- Pavlov's dogs were given food at the same time a bell was rung. The dogs began to salivate because of the food. Pavlov took away the food and the dogs still salivated at the sound of the bell.
Operant Conditioning is the association of a behavior with a reward or punishment. Commonly trial and error learning.
- A dog or child learning to stay away from ant hills after being bitten.
Practice of certain behaviors
Movement caused by a stimulus
Movement toward or away from a stimulus.
- Young animals pouncing or nipping at other animals in order to practice hunting.
- Cockroach moving because of light, but not necessarily toward or away from the light.
Seasonal movement of animals over long distances
Activities that take place involving a group of animals for a specific purpose.
An action that provokes a response and causes communication between organisms.
- Whales migrate to warm waters to give birth and cool waters to feed.
- Death rituals that elephants partake in when a member dies. One member may stay with them until after death, then other families that pass the body will stop and observe or touch with a trunk or leg.
- Chemical Signals such as pheromones emitted by Ants to tell other ants that food is being brought back to the nest.
- Visual Signals such as a wolf bearing its teeth to ward off a fight.
- Auditory Signals such as bird calls or mating calls.