The Ancient Times

Emma F. Lauren F. Jeannette K. Carly S.


The Impact of the Line of Demarcation

The Line of Demarcation divided the non-Europe world into two zones. One zone for Portugal and one for Spain. Spain was able to take control of anything west of the line. They could explore and trade with any of this lands. Portugal any non-Europe land that was east of the line. The first line was made in 1493 by Pope Alexander VI. The line was later moved more to the west so that Portugal could take control of Brazil. The terms of the Line of Demarcation were set by the Treaty of Tordesillas. The treaty was signed by both Portugal and Spain in 1494 to agree to the conditions of the Line of Demarcation. This meant that other European countries didn't have rights to any non-Europe land. After time, the line was disregarded by those countries and they began to take control of the non-European lands. This wasn't the only problem with the Line of Demarcation. Another problem was that the line didn't encircle the globe so it wasn't clear what country lands across the world belonged to. It was also unclear the exact location of the line because geography at the time wasn't accurate.


The Benefits of Magnetic Compasses

Compasses are by far the most popular and commonly used technological instrument since the fifteenth-century. While although the Chinese had a compass already invented and in use, compasses reached their pinnacle when they became magnetic. The magnetic compass worked by using an iron needle, which was magnetized by a mineral called lodestone that aligned with the North and South Pole. With compasses, navigators could accurately make new maps and accurately travel according to the information written on them. The invention of the magnetic compass is one of the most beneficial things to happen to the process of exploration. Although the magnetic compass was extremely important and was relied on heavily during the time of little technological advances, its worth has slowly dwindled because of the availability of GPS', cells phones, and the newfound easiness of traveling across the ocean via planes. Magnetic compasses are by far the most beneficial invention to the crew members on ships and captains themselves.


The Slave Trade

Slave trade became a prominent business in Europe in the 1500s and 1600s. They saw slaves as the most valuable item from African trade. Not only did Europe see them as a good trade but the Arab Empire, as well. Europeans used slaves on plantations, and the richest families bought them houses. They got the slaves through the African rulers and traders, rather than raiding the country. The rulers would bring the slaves to the coast from the interior of the country for them. In exchange for the slaves, the European traders gave the African rulers textiles, weapons, and gunpowder, and over the next 300 years the business would flourish into something greater. Every year, slaves upon slaves were shipped to the American planation. Some of the African leaders got mad at the trading going on and tried to stop it. One of the most well known of these leaders was Afonso I, the ruler of Kongo. In efforts to make Kongo Christian, he need to keep contact with Portugal, but wanted to end the slave trade. Still, today, there is some slavery still occurring in some parts of the world along with those trying to rid of it for good.


Interview with Niko Attah

Interviewer: Hello, I am here with Niko Attah, who has lived here in Angola, a coastal city in

Western Africa, her entire life. I am here today to find out just how much European colonization has affected her. Hello Niko, that you for being here.

Niko: Thank you for having me.

Interviewer: Now Niko, especially since you live on a costal city, has the recent migration of

Europeans and new European business affected you in any negative ways?

Niko: Of course! Many Europeans don't even think of us as a people! Sure their trading with us helps us a bit, but I would say that overall, they have done way more bad than good! These Europeans have only been thinking about themselves since they entered my beautiful country, and in my opinion, they ruined it.

Interviewer: I understand that you are very upset about the topic, and with good reason. But you did say that the trade has helped your country some, let's focus on the positive shall we?

Niko: Yes of course. Well, when they weren't trading people, they brought over weapons, tools, and cloth to our country. While the cloth and tools help us, I think that the weapons are a waste of trade. If it weren't for these Europeans invading our lands and stealing our people, we wouldn't need weapons at all.

Interviewer: I see. Now you keep brining up this slave trade between the Europeans and Africa, have you been personally affected by the kidnappings and raids?

Niko: Well nobody has tried to sell me... yet! But that doesn't mean that they won't try. Especially because I live in a costal city, many of my friends have been kidnapped and sent to another country. Not that people from inner Africa aren't being affected. I hear that they are even taking people from Bornu and Darfur now! Nobody is safe in Africa. Imagine, real people being stolen from their homes and families being traded for cloth; as if they are nothing but cattle. And as if being stolen wasn't bad enough, they are forced to work under terrible conditions while their “masters”, as they call themselves, do nothing but use up all of their money on foolish things.

Interviewer: Yes, this slave trade truly is a horrendous thing that your people have had to deal with. Well, it appears that we are out of time. Thank you so much for meeting with me today and sharing your views.

Niko: Thank you for having me.


Ferdinand Magellan and His Biggest Accomplishment

A Portuguese nobleman, Ferdinand Magellan, was one of the most important exploration captains of the sixteenth-century. Magellan and his crew set out from Spain on September 20th, 1519 to find a way to reach the Pacific Ocean, which was at the time referred to as the South Sea. They used five ships and together faced a very bi-polar sea. Some of the conditions they endured were storms, harsh winds, and fierce tides. The group overcame their problems and found a passageway through the southern region of South America. This passage soon became known as the Strait of Magellan. After Magellan reached the "South Sea" he renamed it the Pacific Ocean, a name still used today, because of the calm water. Unfortunately, Magellan did not listen to his crew when they proposed returning to Spain, which in the end, got him killed. While although many say he was able to circumnavigate the Earth, it was truly his crew that was able to complete this feat. Magellan allowed for many discoveries to be made and is one of history's greatest explorers.

The Adventure of Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus was an Italian navigator from Genoa. He was well educated and charming. After being rejected by Portugal, he easily persuaded Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain to sponsor his quest to get to Indonesia by traveling across the ocean. Columbus began his voyage on August 3rd, 1492. Although he was educated, he underestimated the size of the Earth, and finally, after weeks, land was spotted on October 12th. The three ships used to travel were the Ninã, the Pinta, and the Santa María. Because Columbus thought he had reached the Indies, he called the local people "Indians". Soon after Columbus returned to Spain and was looked at in awe. He made multiple trips back to "the Indies", all in which he was convinced he was in Indonesia. Many European countries quickly realized that Columbus had discovered new land, not an oceanic path to Asia. Despite wrong calculations and mislead conclusions, Christopher Columbus was one of the most important explorers of his time.

Vasco da Gama

On December 24, 1524, a loving father, husband, and renowned explorer passed away. Vasco da Gama was born in (c.) 1460 in Sines, Portugal. In 1497, he decided to start an exploration to India. He brought with him four ships to round the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa. Ten months later, da Gama reached Calicut, India. On the way, two ships were lost and many people died of scurvy, hunger, and thirst. Because of this, many spices were sold to Portugal. Also, Portugal was able to seize many trading ports in order to make a wide spread trading empire. After getting to Calicut, he went on another journey with twenty ships to Mecca so they can shut down Muslim power. He later moved to Cochin, India. He then retired and returned back to his wife and three sons in Portugal. Although he was no longer working, he kept in contact with King Manuel concerning Indian affairs. He was named Vidigueria in 1519. Once King Manuel died, Vasco moved back to Cochin where he was named Portuguese Viceroy in India. Finally on Christmas Eve of 1524, Vasco da Gama died. The suspected cause of death may have been overworking, but it is not known for sure. The body is being planed to be sailed back to Portugal and buried in 1538.


Mughal, India

Mughal, India is a beautiful place to visit. Not only it is rich in culture but it is rich in trade too. It has many luxury items and trading goods. Mughal is home to many valuable spices. It also is the worlds leader in textile production. Mughal, India is a large exporter of beautiful silks and cotton cloths. It is one of the largest and most powerful empires. Mugal has a Persian art style and culture. It also has an advanced style of architecture which includes the Taj Mahal. Mughal also has a very specific government that has consideration and respect for human rights. Their government also brings together many of the smaller kingdoms. The Mughal or sometimes Mongols are very militaristic. They were some of the first people to use guns. They also had a large empire that conquered many lands. The Mughals also had a good education learning culture and taking into consideration the needs of people. Mughal, India is not only a beautiful place to visit but also is strong in government and military.


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