SPAIN/Beginning of the 19th century

1800-1840

The War of Independence (1808)

Napoleon Bonaparte was extending his empire across Europe.
Carlos IV of Bourbon and his son Fernando VII were fighting amongst themselves. Napoleon invaded Spain and put his brother on the throne, José I Bonaparte.
May 2 1808 people of Madrid rose up against the French invasion. Beginning of War of Independence.

THE BIRTH OF LIBERALISM

War of Independence was between Spain and France, but Spanish people with different political ideas were also in conflict: civil war.
Other countries participate in the war: Great Britain, against Napoleon.
In 1812, during the war, the Cortes de Cádiz took place. The first Constitution was written.
It was a liberal text. Defended rights and liberties for citizens.

THE RETURN OF ABSOLUTISM

Fernando VII of Bourbon returned to the Spanish throne.
Abolished the Constitution and restored absolutism. This led to confrontations between liberals and absolutists.
The Spanish colonies in America were not pleased and proclaimed their independence.