Chapter 19

Above (and beyond) the Periodic Table

Chapter Synopsis

Chapter 19 of The disappearing Spoon consisted of five elements: Helium, Francium, Hydrogen, Astatine, and Uranium. The chapter begins talking about the two most rare elements which are Astatine and Francium. The chapter discusses how francium is more common although it is heavier and less stable. Towards the middle of the chapter, the author talks about how scientist came up with the island of stability. The island of stability discusses how stabilize the nuclei of elements. At the end of the chapter the author demonstrates how the periodic table is set up now as well as the many other ways it has been organized in the past

Hydrogen

  • Atomic # : 1
  • Mass: 1
  • Period: 1 Group: 1
  • Electron configuration: 1s1
  • Classification: Non-Metal
  • Where element is found: Our atmosphere
  • Why is this element important: is 90% of our visible atmosphere
  • What material is this element found in:
  • What is this element used for: Fusion, rocket fuel, ammonia
  • Compound this element is found in: Water (H2O), Methane (CH4), Table Sugar (C12H22O11), Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)
  • Where this element was found and by whom: In 1671 Hydrogen was produced with iron and acids but was not named an element until 1766 by Henry Cavendish.
  • This element was named after: Greek words "hydro genes" (water forming)
  • Unique Characteristics: most abundant element

Helium

  • Atomic # : 2
  • Mass: 4
  • Period: 1 Group: 18
  • Electron configuration: 1s2
  • Classification: Non- Metal
  • Where element is found: Mostly in Texas, although it is mainly found in the universe and here on Earth it must be dug up.
  • Why is this element important: Helium and oxygen are combined and is used to create a nitrogen free area for deep sea divers to prevent the disease Nitrogen Narcosis. Liquid Helium is used to study superconductivity and to create superconductive magnets. This element is also not good with chemical reactions.
  • What material is this element found in: Natural Gas Deposits
  • What is this element used for: Inflating blimps and balloons,
  • Compound this element is found in: No known compounds, Helium Diflouride has been attempted to make (HeF2)
  • Where this element was found and by whom: Sir Norman Lockyer discovered on the sun (1868) and then on Earth in 1895
  • This element was named after: The Greek god of the sun - Helios
  • Unique Characteristics: second most abundant element in the universe

Astatine

  • Atomic # :85
  • Mass: 210
  • Period: 6 Group: 17
  • Electron configuration: 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p64f145d106s26p5
  • Classification: Metalloid
  • Where element is found: Earth's Crust ( only about 30 grams)
  • Why is this element important: Scientific research
  • What material is this element found in: Element is just found in decay of uranium and thorium
  • What is this element used for: Scientific research
  • Compound this element is found in: this element is not found in compounds
  • Where this element was found and by whom: Astatine was produced by Dale R. Carson, K.R. MacKenzie and Emilio Segrè since it is one of the most rare elements.
  • This element was named after: From the Greek word unstable, astatos
  • Unique Characteristics: Only around .05 micro grams of Astatine have been produced

Uranium

  • Atomic # : 92
  • Mass: 238
  • Period: 7 Group: none
  • Electron configuration:1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d10f14 5s2p6d10f3 6s2p6d1 7s2
  • Classification: Metal
  • Where element is found: Mining areas in Canada, Zaire, Czech Republic and USA.
  • Why is this element important: It is used to generate electricity and fuel for nuclear bombs as well as in other military weaponary
  • What material is this element found in: Rocks, Soil, Rivers, Oceans, Earth's crust
  • What is this element used for: X-Ray machines, fuel for nuclear bombs, used in class
  • Compound this element is found in: Uranium dioxide (UO2) , Uranium Tetrachloride (UCl4)
  • Where this element was found and by whom: Germany, Martin J. Klaproth
  • This element was named after: Planet Uranus
  • Unique Characteristics: Uranium has been used for thousands of years to color glass.

Francium

  • Atomic # : 87
  • Mass: 223
  • Period: 7 Group: 1
  • Electron configuration: 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2 , 3p6 , 3d10, 4s2, 4p6 , 4d10 , 4f14 , 5s2, 5p6 , 5d10 , 6s2, 6p6, 7s1
  • Classification: Metal
  • Where element is found: Earth' crust
  • Why is this element important: this element is not very important since there is almost none of it available
  • What material is this element found in: this material can be made but it is not found in any other place besides Earth's crust
  • What is this element used for: only scientific research
  • Compound this element is found in: none
  • Where this element was found and by whom: France, Marguerite Catherine Perey
  • This element was named after: The country France
  • Unique Characteristics: Only one ounce is found in Earth's crust

Elements Synopsis

Sources Cited

Gagnon. (January, 2016). Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility - Office of Science Education. Retrieved from http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele001.html

Gagnon. (January, 2016). Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility - Office of Science Education. Retrieved from http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele002.html

Gagnon. (January, 2015). Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility - Office of Science Education. Retrieved from http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele085.html

Gagnon. (January, 2016). Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility - Office of Science Education. Retrieved from http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele092.html.

Grogan. (January, 2016). Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility - Office of Science Education. Retrieved from http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele087.html