Chapter 8 Study Guide
Map of India
8.1 Origins of Hindu India
Aryan's worshiped many gods and goddesses which eventually turned into Hinduism. The Universal Spirit was based on different beliefs and practices. There were three parts the brahma (the creator), the vishnu (the preserver), and siva (the destroyer). Upanishads was a religious writing from 800-400 BC. It focuses on searching and the philosophy of the truth behind the gods. Their belief was that everything has a should that are apart of the universal spirit, Brahman Nerguna. The Brahman Nerguna is to know true freedom one must part from the material world.
The Aryan's believed in reincarnation or a rebirth of the soul. They believed in karma. Karma is based on how you live your life and how you take it into your next life. Ahisma is nonviolence toward all living things to protect humans, animals, and plants. Moksha is a release from the pain of rebirth to complete oneness from Brahman Nerguna. To reach moksha, you need to be committed to prayer, religious rituals, strict self-denial, and rejection of all worldly things.
Jainism emphasizes ahimsa. Jainism was founded in 500 BC. They reject sacrifices and social divisions and farming.
Rig-Veda- oldest book
Varnas- social classes
Jati- sub categories by occupation
Brahmans- preists; study and teach vedas, religious ceremonies, ensure welfare of people
Kshatriyas- warriors/rulers; vedas, lead government, head of army
Vaisyas- common people,merchants, artisans, farmers; tend herds, care for land, make and sell products
Sudras- unskilled laborers, servants; serve other varnas
Pariahs(untouchables, outcasts)- slaves; preforms tasks considered unclean, lived outside the cities
Dharma- duties of each male in each varna
Mahabharata- Epic poem that outlines one must do their duty no matter what (100,00 verses; multiple authors)
Ramayana- 24,000 verses; struggle between good and evil
Universal Spirit- based on different beliefs and practices
Brahma- the creator
Vishnu- The preserver
Siva- the destroyer
Upanishads- religious writings from 800-400 BC
Brahman Nerguna- universal spirit
Reincarnation- rebirth of the soul
Ahisma- nonviolence towards all living things
Moksha- release from the pain of rebirth, complete oneness with Brahman Nerguna
8.2 Rise of Buddhism
The Four Noble Truths:
- all people suffer and know sorrow
-people suffer because their desires bind them to reincarnation
-end suffering by eliminating desires
-eliminate desires by following the Eightfold Path
The Eightfold Path:
-to know the truth
-say nothing to hurt others
-work for the good of others
-free their minds of evil
-control their thoughts
The Eightfold Path leads to Nirvana, freedom from rebirth. There are no Hindu deities.
The Buddha spent 40 years teaching the Four Nobel Truths and the Eightfold Path. After his death monks spread out throughout Asia.
Nirvana- freedom from rebirth (state of extinction)
Stupas- large stone mounds over the bones of holy people
Theravada- S/SE Asia, regards Buddha as a teacher
Mahayana- China, Korea, Japan; Buddha as a divine being and savior
8.3 Indian Empires
Magadha was an Indian kingdom that was trying to expand north during Darius's invasions. King Bimbisara ruled from 542 BC to 495 BC. he added
The first empire was the Mauryan Empire. Chandragupta Maurya overthrew the Magadhan king and proclaimed himself ruler. He founded the Mauryan kingdom that included most of the northern and central India and lasted until 184 BC. The empire blossomed during the reign of Chadragutpa's grandson, Asoka. Asoka began his rule in 274 BC. He built roads, made rest houses and shade trees for the comfort of travelers. Asoka favored Hinduism. Asoka converted to Buddhism after seeing a bloodied battlefield. The collapse of the empire happened after Asoka's death in 232 BC. The harsh policies his successors used caused the people to turn against the Mauryas. The last Mauryan ruler was murdered in 184 BC and northern India split once again into smaller kingdoms.
The second Gupta Empire started about 310 AD. Chandragupta I began to build the empire. Chandragupta I introduced the Gupta dynasty which ruled the northern part of India for more than 200 years. Madadha ruled for more than 200 years and it was later called the Golden Age. The Gupta made Hinduism their main religion. The Gupta empire reached its height under the rule of Chandragupta II. He ruled from 375 AD to 415 AD. He wrote rules for grammar and politics. Sanskrit became major language. After Chandragupta II's death in 415 AD, the Gupta Empire began to fall. The government was weakened and the Gupta faced invasions.
Magadha- the kingdom of Magadha was expanding north; under the rule of Bimbisara who ruled from 542 BC to 495 BC
Chandragupta Maurya- overthrew Magadhan king and proclaimed himself ruler in 321 BC
Asoka- Rule began in 274 BC in the Mauryan Empire; fierce wars
Chandragupta I- build the Gupta Empire in about 310 AD
Chandragupta II- ruled from 375 AD to 415 AD for the Gupta Empire
Arabic Numerals- symbols decided for the numbers 1 to 9
Rock Edicts- laws written on stones throughout empire in local languages