Religion Belief Systems
The Major Religious Beliefs
Hinduism and Buddhism
most Hindus revere a body of texts as sacred scripture known as the Veda, and most Hindus draw on a common system of values known as dharm Hinduism originated around the Indus Valley near the River Indus in modern day Pakistan About 80% of the Indian population regard themselves as Hindu Most Hindus believe in a Supreme God, whose qualities and forms are represented by the multitude of deities which emanate from him Hindus believe that existence is a cycle of birth, death, and rebirth, governed by Karma Hindus believe that the soul passes through a cycle of successive lives and its next incarnation is always dependent on how the previous life was lived The main Hindu texts are the Vedas and their supplements (books based on the Vedas). Veda is a Sanskrit word meaning 'knowledge'. These scriptures do not mention the word 'Hindu' but many scriptures discuss dharma, which can be rendered as 'code of conduct', 'law', or 'duty' there final resting place is moksha and they spread throughout India.
The basic doctrines of early Buddhism, which remain common among Buddhists today, include the “four noble truths:” existence is suffering (dukhka); suffering has a cause, namely craving and attachment (trishna); there is a cessation of suffering, which is nirvana; and there is a path to the cessation of suffering, the “eightfold path” of right views, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration.
Meditation and observance of moral precepts are the foundation of Buddhist practice. The five basic moral precepts, undertaken by members of monastic orders and the laity, are to refrain from taking life, stealing, acting unchastely, speaking falsely, and drinking intoxicants, it's resting place is moksha and its origin is asia
Judaism is based around the idea that God is supreme; the creator of all things and the powerful being whom we communicate with through prayer. God appears on almost every page of the Jewish Bible. He is present all through the Jewish liturgy: in the Siddur (prayer book), Passover Haggadah and various songs and poems, to name a few.
The great book of Judaism is the Torah. Strictly speaking, the Torah consists of the first five books of the Scriptures, known as the Five Books of Moses. But the name Torah has come to stand for the teachings of Judaism as a whole.
The Torah gave rise to many commentaries, interpretations and codes of conduct, at first passed on by word of mouth (‘the Oral Law’). Much of this material was written down in the 5th century in the Talmud(‘Learning’), a great work in 63 volumes. Apart from the ethical and theological teaching, the Talmud contains closely reasoned discussions on Judaism, stories about the sages, and information on legal, historical, social and even scientific matters
These principles of the Jewish faith were formulated by Moses Maimonides (13th century):
- God created all things;
- There is only one God;
- God has no bodily form;
- God is eternal;
- We must pray only to God;
- All the words of the prophets are true;
- Moses was the greatest of the prophets;
- The Torah we have is the same that was given to Moses;
- The Torah will never be changed;
- God knows human deeds and thoughts;
- God rewards good and punishes evil;
- The Messiah will come to redeem Israel and the world;
- There will be a resurrection of the dead.
Like many other Eastern religions, the details surrounding the founding of Confucianism are a bit sketchy. With many historians arguing over dates and events, the most authentic material on the topic are found in a collection of Confucius' teachings known as the Analects.
To begin, Confucianism is the philosophy or religion based on the teaching of Master Kung. Notice I chose to say philosophy or religion. I do this because it doesn't really hold to any solid belief in a divine being or even a view on the afterlife. For this reason, many choose to look at Confucianism more as an attitude toward life rather than a religion. Regardless of whether you call it a religion or a philosophy, it's very hard to deny the huge impact Confucianism has had on the Eastern world.
With this in mind, let's take a look at its founder. As we do so, we'll try and stick with the most agreed upon details of his life and his philosophies
Master Kung, known to us by the Westernized form of his name Confucius, lived during a time of great political upheaval. The decline of the Chinese feudal system, a system of power based on land ownership, had led to a period of great instability at the time of Confucius' birth. At this time, feudal lords and the nobility were unable to protect themselves against invasion, and warring tribes began tearing apart the old established order of Chinese society. In fact, many sources report that Confucius' own family, which had once been members of the aristocracy, had lost their wealth and position of power during this very unstable time.