Canada In 2035
Will Canada be the greatest country to live in come 2035?
Unit 1: Changing Populations
Canada’s population is made up mostly of immigrants (97%). Canada’s population is slowly decreasing because our birth rate is dropping and our death rate is rising. After the end of World War 2, the baby boom began, from 1946 – 1964 many families in the United States and Canada had children. Our death rates are now increasing because the baby boomers have gotten older, retired from their jobs and are starting to pass away. During the baby boom, 3.7 children were being born per woman. Over the past few years women are choosing to get a better job/education than starting a family. Our birth rate is at an all-time low with only 1.5 children being born per woman. With Canada’s birth rate declining, we are relying more on skilled immigrants to fill the jobs. Canada’s population pyramid is currently a stage 4 moving into a stage 5.
Canada is often referred to as the land of immigrants because 97% of our population are immigrants. Immigration is caused when push factors and pull factors are stronger than the intervening obstacles. The push factors recently have been war, religion prosecution, poor economy or education, human rights violation and possible natural disasters. Canada’s pull factors are as followed, good climate, better jobs, religion acceptance, joining family and much better living conditions. These intervening obstacles could stop you from immigrating in full, they may not meet Canadian government requirements, too far from family and immigration costs could be too high. Canada needs more immigrants now because we have a lack of skilled workers. For the past 47 years immigrants have been better educated than Canadians, and now that our birth rate is declining there is an even higher priority for them.
First Nations, Metis and InuitThe Indian Act was created by the government of Canada in 1876 which was an act that gave control over how could legally be considered an Indian. I believe the Indian act is way out of date and should not be applicable now. The first nations are being treated really unfairly and the Government of Canada needs to modify the Indian Act or create a new, fairer agreement. The new act should consist of the first nations having more control over their own land. This should also include good farm land with food resources, homes, modes of transportation, clothing and spiritual beliefs.
Future of Changing PopulationsCanada’s population may drop off in the coming years. Canada’s birth rate is dropping but new immigrants may make up for the loss of skilled workers. Another event like the baby boom would have to happen for Canada’s population to increase. In the future, I believe that China and India will still be major contributors to Canada’s immigration. China and India both have very large populations which have lots of interest in immigrating to Canada. I feel that in the future the pull and push factors may become much stronger than the intervening obstacles.
Unit 2: Interactions in the Physical Environment
Canada experiences four seasons; spring, summer, fall and winter. In the summer the temperature can rise to 33c and winter lows of -20c. The interior of Canada can get very warm in the summer exceeding 21c if there is no breeze or nearby water source. Winter can get very cold due to the wind currents and the jet stream (-20 or colder). Spring and fall are the milder and cooler seasons ranging from 7c to 16c. It is expected to have rain in the spring and temperatures around 7c to 13c. In the fall the climate can slightly change depending on the year. Sometimes we could get snow really early in the beginning of November, others years not.
Canada’s climate is greatly influenced by the acronym LOWERN which stands for: Latitude, Ocean Currents, Wind and Air masses, Elevation, Relief and Nearness to water. Mississauga’s latitude is 43 degrees north/79 degrees west. Latitude affects our climate because the earth’s axis is tilted. Wind and air masses affect Mississauga because heated ground that rises and cools in the upper atmosphere cause major pressure changes. Pressure changes create wind which can move weather systems to other regions. High pressure usually brings cooler drier weather while low pressure brings warmer wet weather. We are located near Lake Ontario which is a large body of water. Land heats up and cools off faster than a body of water does which means the water has a moderating effect on the land. On warmer days the water cools off the land and on colder days the water heats up the land.
Physical FeaturesThe physical features of Canada start deep within the earth’s crust almost to the core. Just outside the outer core we have the asthenosphere which is the uppermantle (this layer moves very slowly). This layer is viscous, creates plate tectonics that move on this layer and moves approximately 3cm per year. The lower mantle layer creates convectional currents, in a circular cycling motion, which causes the plates to move. This layer is very hot and dense semisolid rock which runs 2900km deep. The Canadian Shield covers northern parts of Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec. This area of land mostly consists of hilly terrain, lakes and important rivers spanning into the other regions.
Climate Change in the Future
Climate change started when we began burning fossil fuels, which releases large volumes of co2 in the atmosphere. The sun’s heat rays penetrate the atmosphere to warm the earth’s surface, but are trapped and not allowed to escape due to all the co2 in the air. This is known as the greenhouse effect. This is having a large impact on human activity because people are becoming ill due to all the toxic waste in the air and water. Animals are dying off as well, which leaves less food to hunt for up north. Certain animal deaths can cause viruses to breakout and can have a large impact on Canada.
Unit 3: Managing Canada's Resources & industries
One of Canada’s largest resources is oil. The Alberta oil sands generated $49 billion in revenue in 2012 and will continue to produce. Generating large amounts oil for the rest of the world (trade) comes at the price of using many of our other natural resources to extract the oil from the sand. It takes four barrels of fresh water to create one barrel of oil. Forestry, mining and fishing are other current resources Canada has. Fishing occurs mostly on the coasts because they’re right beside the oceans. Forestry and mining can happen anywhere there is the resource (sporadic).
Sustainable use of Resources
Canada needs to begin preserving its non-renewable resources. We are using water and energy at an extremely fast rate due to the growing population. Canada has renewable and non-renewable resources. Solar power, wind power and hydroelectricity are all examples of renewable resources. Fossil fuels, oil and mining are examples of non-renewable. Sustainable yield management is knowing the amount of a resource that can be harvested without depleting the resource. Canada should insure continued supply by allowing time for the resources to naturally replenish or reproduce it. Canada is burning a lot of our fossil fuels to make energy and for creating oil. At the moment we are taking too much from the earth and need to cut back before it’s too late.
Canada’s Global ConnectionsCanada’s GDP is ranked 14th in the world and are 2.94% of the world’s economy. NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) was signed in 1994 a multicultural agreement between Mexico, Canada and the United States. This was to eliminate tariffs and increase trade, this has benefited all economies. Globalization is also a big part of Canada and there are some pros and cons with globalization. Cheaper prices, cultural exchange and increasing wealth in the developing world are all pros with globalization. Sweat shops, child labour, pollution and bad working conditions are all examples of cons with globalization.
Future of Resources & IndustriesIn the future I believe Canada will be connected to world even more. Trading is very important with countries such as China and India. I still think that oil, fishing and forestry will be quite important, especially oil, because Alberta, Canada has a very large amount of it. I do however believe we will be exporting to many more countries come 2035 (not just the United States). Canada needs to start thinking of renewable energy, such as solar and wind power. Right now we need to cut back on taking/using too many resources at once, or else it’ll be gone come 2035.
Unit 4: Liveable Communities
Canadian City Issues
A large Canadian city issue is energy and water. At the moment one of our primary resources of power is burning fossil fuels. Canada needs to create greener ways of creating energy, such as solar and wind energy. We are also using a lot of fresh water, because of the size of our population, it’s depleting quickly. Alberta also using tons of fresh water (4 barrels per 1 barrel of oil) per day. Canada needs to conserve its wetlands, conservation areas and the greenbelt in Ontario until we can find a new source of fresh water or extract the salt from ocean water.
Urban Sprawl for Canadian Cities
Urban sprawl is a big concern for Canadians weather it’s from the health impacts to infrastructure issues. Urban sprawl is the encroachment of an urban center into the surrounding rural or farm land on the edge of a city. It’s also low density, single family homes spread over large areas. The top four issues of urban sprawl are: transportation cost, farm land use, health costs and infrastructure needs. In the GTA there has been a lot of activity surrounding urban sprawl. In 2011 the population of the GTA was 6.4 million people, and is projected to be 8.8 million by 2035. Some transportation issues include pollution, commute times and traffic congestion. Other health impacts are: obesity, heart disease, air pollution and respiratory illness, high stress and depression/unhappiness. The obesity link between hours driving per day is 6% increase for every hour in the car. The statistics for air pollution and deaths is unbelievable. In 2005 only 6989 deaths were recorded, but in 2010, 7469 deaths were recorded. There was a large increase in the past 5 years mostly because more people are using cars and buses to get where they need to go.
Liveable Communities in the Future
I believe Ontario will need to deal with urban sprawl by making people aware of the health impacts. Once people understand how much pollution they make by driving to work, which could only be 2km away, they’ll decide to walk or bike to decrease the amount of pollution they make. Obesity is another problem that can be fixed as long as people are aware of the situation. In the future I think cities will learn to become more sustainable when using their resources. In 2035 we should have multi wind and solar energy farms to maximize the power we can create from the environment.
By the year 2035 Canada will be much different. The size of our population will be much different, who immigrates and first nation’s laws. Canada’s climate will change and may increase global temperature, can also change our climate factors and affect the physical features of our land. Canada’s resources, management and global connections will change. We may be importing and exporting different materials than we are now. Urban sprawl in 2035 will change drastically and the GTA’s population could go as high as 8.8 million. All in all, Canada will be a great, but much different country by the year 2035.