Decolonization

Period 1 Victoria Edward, Alan B, Alexander Maclean

indepedence Movements and Developments in Asia and Africa

-After WWII, a wave of independence rallies started the beginning and the end of Europeans control of other countries.

- The U.S. and Western Europe were fighting a Cold War in which to defend people's right to choose their own fate under political systems. In turn became very hard for Western colonial powers to get post WWII principles with their imperialist policies.


The mistreatment towards the abused people was hard to bare so they stood up and demanded for independence.

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The Indian Subcontinent

-A mostly Hindu political group was created to increase rights of Indians under foreign rule then the Muslim league in 1906 took time to make an organized resistance to outside power. Later, in 1919 the Amritsar Massacre launched the movement.

-In Amritsar, when a group of 319 Muslims and Hindus tried to peacefully protest the arrest of their leader in a city park, they were murdered by the British General Dyer. When news of this spread, Indians by the millions joined by the cause.


During the 1920s, Mohandas Gandhi became the movement's significant voice and made huge protests against colonial rule through his philosophy of passive resistance or civil disobedience. This gained popular support in the struggle and not only that instead of using weapons, his followers staged demonstrations such as massive boycotts of British imperial goods, strikes when hundreds of thousands of workers refused to act as labor for the British colonial government's salt factories. Gandhi's teaching became enormously influential that it partly inspired the U.S. civil right movement led by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.


Simultaneously, a rise in the violence between Muslims and Hindus such as when both parties were working together peacefully against the British, the toleration levels for radical members of both groups was becoming low. This dint sit right with Gandhi who is also raised Hindu but wished for mutual respect for everyone in both religions. Late 1920s Gandhi called for unity to be over religious actions but the Muslim league actively pushed for a Muslim nation and a name it Pakistan.

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Independence Won: Nations Two

After WWII their effort paid off in which Britain finally granted independence to the Indian subcontinent. Ironically once independence was granted, blood was shed between Radical Hindus and Muslims fighting each other


Two schools in regards to the newly independent subcontinent in which the first promoted by Gandhi, at first British called for the making of a united India where both religions would be practice. Two was the formation of two separate nations one for each religion in which was a movement by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. British were convinced that it would save lives by separating the people so when British turned over the power to new leaders the subcontinent split into thirds.Pakistan (Muslim) into part northwest of India(mostly Hindu but officially secular) and the other to the east(currently Bangladesh).


This created chaos such as people forced to flee due to religiously motivated violence and people moved to their religions nations but was a nightmare to Gandhi in this caused nearly half a million people were killed when they migrated. This movement caused international conflict between the two nations and within a year Gandhi was assassinated by an upset Hindu. Today tension is between the two is horrendous. Fighting in Kashmir and in 2008 an increase in terrorism as Pakistan became more unstable.

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Africa

After WWII, they began to assert their independence in which was partly inspired by India and the rest of the world and was motivated by the war itself. In which made them felt that if they are willing to die for their independence then they earned their right to live free.


South became a significant British colony, complete with extensive investment in infrastructure and institutions. It had its own constitution in 1910 and became the Union of South Africa in which exercised self-rule while being under the British. In the constitution privileges such as voting and others were gave to the white men while the native african had few right this later in 1912 the ANC was organized in an efforts to oppose European colonialism and unequal policies.


Nations north of Sahara were next to win independence and they had strong Islamic ties. the middle east and so Egypt in 1922 won its independence early but Egypt kept close to Britain. In the 1950s Gamal Nasser, a general in the Egyptian army overthrew the king and made a republic. Nationalizing industries including the Suez canal and he became involved in Middle eastern problems. His actions influenced other Islamic nationalist to seek independence, and soon nations along the Mediterranean were free.

South of Sahara Independence was tricky. Almost every colony wanted to be free but were sucked dry of their natural resources. Little investment in human beings, vast majority were uneducated and few skilled professionals. Not only that national unity was hard due to lack in accounting the different culture when Britain was making boundary lines so in return the diversity in a single colony were sometimes opposing each other.this all caused problems when the colonies won their independence.


Decolonization and nation were various such as fight between Algerians and France(1954-1962) or Nigeria and Ghana negotiated their freedom.Kenya was a mixture a negotiation after a brutal crackdown by coffee planters. Other such as Angola and Belgian Congo overthrew the government which lead to Civil/Cold war tension. Zimbabwe was last to establish during 1990.


A political and economic organization called African Union has fifty-three nations in which the nations Chad Sudan, Uganda, Somalia, Rwanda are not granted success and stability due to ongoing civil wars. Efforts to form stable democracies blocked by corruption, military coups, an escalating debt payments. A relative stable nation, Kenya has seen political violence.


Africa is rich in natural resources such as palm oil, rubber, metals in which former colonial powers and china are interested and invested in.

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Rwanda: Ethnic Genocide

The Tutsi(who governs) and the Hutu(majority of the population) have tension created by Belgian rule and especially after the authorities withdrew. Upon independence in 1962, the Hutu rised up against the leadership of the Tutsi in which escalated the tension between them such as a 100 day genocide left as many 800,000 Tutsi dead and by following year two million plus refugees(mostly Hutu) fled or sent to Zaire where many died from disease. Since the country had only 7 million people it this event was ranked among the most devastating in recent history.
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South Africa Aparthied

Union of South Africa included two British colonies and two Dutch Boer republics in which in 1923 residential segregation was established and and enforced also black people excluded from the political process. This created white only occupation, homelands set aside for blacks in which they set aside in the worst part of the country and comprised less than 15 percent of the nation's land. The whites were given better resource rich mines and better farmland and those blacks who choose to stay in the city were segregated into slums.


In response movements formed such as in the 1950s Nelson Mandela became leader of the ANC and at first advocate peacefully movements. However, in 1960 after the Sharpville massacre in which blacks protested the policy of carrying passes, the ANC supported guerrilla warfare. Mandela was arrested in 1964 and sentenced to life imprisonment.

Increasing pressure form the black majority , Mandela was released in 1990 and negotiated on the apartheid. The government more than negotiated and crumbled in which in 1994 after the abolishment of the apartheid, Nelson Mandela was elected president.

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The Middle East

The Middle east was largely comprise of old Ottoman lands and temporarily put under the control of the League of Nations. France was i charge of Syria and Lebanon and Britain in charge of Palestine, Jordan, and Iraq. Persia(Iran) already carved up into spheres of influence between Britain and Russia in the nineteenth century. Arabia immediately untied as a Saudi kingdom after the fall of the Ottomans.
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Israel: Balfour Declares a Mess

During WWI, Zionist persuaded Britain's foreign secretary, Arthur Balfour, Palestine as a Jewish homeland.Balfour Declaration of 1917 states Palestinian as a Jewish homeland but no displacement of the Palestinians living there. In which Britain was in charge og the area in 1920 so it was to make good on its declaration. This was messy i ways where it told Jews and Palestinians where to divide the land, many Russian Jews fleeing due to violent anti-Semitic mobs, and Palestinians population growing in numbers.
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The Jewish wait for a State Ends in 1948

1948 the United Nations created two Palestines. In 1948 Arab-Israeli War was initiated by six Arab countries when David Ben-Gurion announced the official creation of the Jewish homeland. The Israelis counter attack them with their military capabilities. Within months, they controlled most of Palestine including the Palestinian parts in which the Palestinians were without a land to call home.


As Jews migrated to Israel the conflicts continued. in 1967, the Six Days'War resulted in a victory for the Israelis controlling the West Banks( included Jerusalem- a historical homeland and a revered Islamic shrine called the Dome of Rock) from Jordan, Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip from Egypt and Golan Heights form Syria. This resulted in migration of new Palestinian refugees to this area. In 1977 the Camp David Accords was signed from both parties which is and agreement not mentioning Golan Heights, Syria, or Lebanon but led to Israel letting go of Sinai and Egypt the only Arab country yet to recognize Israel's rights to exist. Sadat assassinated and lands owned remained the same.


A fight from both side due to Israel occupation of the land it has which led to PLO, an organization for the Palestinians to reclaim land but it was unsuccessful. In 2000 a new uprisings in which included suicide bombings form Palestinians led to Israel putting up a wall(Ariel Shannon). 2003 the international community proposed "Road Map to Peace" which shows the goals to get to peace in which progress stalled until the death of Yassir Arafat who was blamed for blocking the progress of peace by Israel. Mahomoud Abbas signed a cease fire following his presidential election in 2005. In a disengagement plan all Israeli settlers were suppose to vacate the Gaza Strip by August 2005 and who didn't move were forcibly removed by their own army in which divide the people. Also settlements disbanded in West Bank.


The issues is made even more complicated by limited financial stability and political divisions such as Fatahs and the Hamas among Palestinians.


Hamas open willingness to support terrorist attacks in which they are frequently targeted by the Israeli military.


Israel border with Lebanon is a hotspot which Hezbollah a militant Shia group backed by Syria and Iran, operates here.

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The Iranian Revolution: The Shahgets shooed

Reza Shah Pahlavi came to power in 1925. He decide that the best way to beat the Westernizers is to join them. Iran modernized slowly at first but as soon as the Europeans left, it gain momentum. Different reforms in 1960s such as land, education and increasing women's rights such as suffrage. The women gain higher education and careers and also evolve their clothing by Western styles. Islamic fundamentalist in which made the Qu'ran the basis of law wee mad other felt as if there isn't enough reforms. The shah responded violently to both sides. When President Carter of the U.S. came to congratulate about the reforms it made the fundamentalist mad. 19179, the shah was ousted from power during the Iranian Revolution which made Iran theocratic. All the reforms were reversed and in which was led by Ayatollah. 1980, Iraq invaded Iran following border disputes. Iran situation was worsened by Saddam Hussein's quite support by the U.S.The Iran-Iraq war was turned into an eight years with support from U.S.

Iran is deemed a power struggle also causing international concern by pushing efforts to develop nuclear technologies in which INternational Atomic Energy Agency, European Union, and the United States currently calling for Iran to sign an agreement in limiting its nuclear programs.

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Oil: Enormous amount of Goo

The industrial Revolution was huge for the Middle East due to them having two-thirds of the world's oil. Middle Eastern governments started earning billions of dollars annually as businesses rushed to the area. The world had great interest in this place which often lead to intervention and war. The oil-producing nations organized with other exporting nations like Venezuela formed OPEC. Cutting supply of oil and raising prices in the 1970s led to extra stuff such as Saudi Arabia modernizing their infrastructures.