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The thyroid gland is located in front of the neck just below the voice box. It releases hormones that control metabolism. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not secrete and synthesize enough thyroid hormone.


The most common cause of hypothyroidism is thyroiditis. This happens when the swelling and inflammation damage the thyroid gland's cells. Other causes of hypothyroidism include:

  • Drugs such as lithium and amiodarone
  • Congenital (birth) defects
  • Radiation treatments to the neck or brain to treat different cancers
  • Surgical removal of a part or all of the thyroid gland
  • Sheehan syndrome, a condition which may occur in women while childbirth causing destruction of the pituitary gland due to heavy bleeding.
  • Iodine deficiency (as iodine is what thyroxine is made of)

levels of hypothyroidism

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It is caused by the thyroid gland. It happens when the gland stops producing enough hormones due to iodine deficiency. It is the most common level of hypothyroidism.


Occurs if the pituitary gland does not create enough thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) to induce the thyroid gland to produce enough thyroxine. The cause is not clear cut but it is mostly because of sum king of damage to the pituitary gland because of some type of radiation, surgery, tumor, etc. It counts to only 5%-10% of all the hypothyroidism cases


Results when the hypothalamus fails to produce sufficient thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). TRH prompts the pituitary gland to produce thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). It is very rare and is less than 5% of all the hypothyroidism cases.

symptoms of hypothyroidism

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Cold intolerance, increased sensitivity to cold, Constipation, Weight gain and water retention, Bradycardia (low heart rate – fewer than sixty beats per minute), Fatigue, Decreased sweating

Muscle cramps and joint pain, Dry, itchy skin, Thin, brittle fingernails, Rapid thoughts, Depression, Poor muscle tone (muscle hypotonia)


Goiter, Slow speech and a hoarse, breaking voice – deepening of the voice can also be noticed.

Dry puffy skin, especially on the face, Abnormal menstrual cycles, Low basal body temperature

Thyroid-related depression, Infertility in both men and women, Mood swings, Acute fatigue, syndrome, Stress


Impaired memory, Sluggish reflexes, Hair loss, Anemia, Difficulty swallowing, Shortness of breath with a shallow and slow respiratory pattern, Increased need for sleep, Irritability and mood instability, Deafness, Enlarged tongue

treatment for controlling hypothyroidism

The purpose of treatment is to replace the thyroid hormone that is lacking. Levothyroxine is the most commonly used medication which will bring the hormone level back to normal.

Myxedema coma is a medical emergency that occurs when the body's level of thyroid hormones become very low. It is treated with intravenous thyroid hormone replacement and steroid medications. Children having hypothyroidism often require large doses. It can also be done by radiations at the primary level and your can also replace the thyroid gland (thyroid replacement)

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