Vertebrates and Invertebrates

By: Katelyn Mai

Invertebrate

Main Characteristics:

  • Invertebrates have no backbone (on the right)
  • Cold-blooded
  • Multicellular

Specialized Cells/Tissues That Allow Them to Function:

  • Ectoderm- Outer layer that develops skin, the brain, and nervous system.
  • Endoderm- Inner layer that lines the animal’s gut.
  • Mesoderm- Middle layer that develops internal tissue and organs.
  • Vascular Tissue - It transports proteins and water throughout the organism.

Three Main Types of Symmetry:

  • Bilateral: Can be divided equally along only one plane, which splits an animal into mirror-image sides. Exaxmples: Butterflies and Bugs
  • Racial: They have body parts arranged in a circle around a central axis. Examples: Coral and Jellyfish
  • Asymmetrical: They are not symmetrical. Sponges are sessile. Example: Phylum Porifera, sponges

Fifteen Phyla:

Vertebrate

Characteristics:

  • They have a backbone (image the right)
  • Well developed nervous system and brain
  • Can be warm or cold blooded

Specialized Cells/Tissues That Allow Them to Function:

  • Braincase- A cranium that protects the brain.
  • Vertebrae- Series of short, stiff vertebrae separated by joints. Protects the backbone that allows animals to move and bend.
  • Bones- Support and protect the body’s tissue.

Chordate (on the right)

Some characteristics in this phylum are notochord, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, paired pharyngeal gill slits and a tail.

Vocab:

Placental - They are like bats and rodents.

Monotreme - A mammal that lays eggs.

Marsupial - A mammal that has a pouch.

5 Main Types of Vertebrate:

  • Fish
  • Amphibian
  • Reptilian
  • Bird
  • Mammal

Fish

A fish is a cold-blooded animal with gills and fins that live in the water.
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Taxonomy:

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Amphibian

Amphibians are cold-blooded animals that are able to live in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. They have two pairs of limbs, permeable skin, and scaleless.
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Taxonomy:

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Amphibia

Order: Anura

Family: Hylidae

Genus: Agalychnis

Species: A. callidryas

Reptilian

These animals usually terrestrial and their body is covered in dry skin. They are also tetrapod vertebrates which means they either have four limbs or are descended from a four-limbed ancestor, amniotes (tetrapods that produce an egg that has an aminos), and ectothermic.
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Taxonomy:

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Reptilia

Order: Squamata

Family: Varanoidae

Genus: Varanus

Species: Varanus komodoensis

Aves (birds)

They are endothermic vertebrates. The main characteristics are that hey have feathers, beaks and wings for some that are able to fly.
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Taxonomy:

ORDER: PASSERIFORMES

FAMILY: CORVIDAE

Mammal

They are warm-blooded vertebrate animals that are differentiated by if the organism has fur or not. The characteristics include hair, and mammary glands. They are also endothermic so they are capable of regulating their body temperature so that it remains at a constant temperature.
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Taxonomy:

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Mammalia

Order: Proboscidae

Family: Elephantidae

Genus: Loxodonta & Elephas

Species: Africana & Maximus