Renaissance Politics

CPA British Literature

Queen Elizabeth I

By: N.Oliveira

Throughout history there have been many kings and queens who have ruled all over this world, one of these great rulers in history turns out to actually be a woman. This woman happened to oversee the countries of England and Ireland during the 1500’s; this great ruler was Queen Elizabeth I.

Queen Elizabeth was born on September 7th 1533 and was the daughter of King Henry the 8th and his wife of the time Anne Boleyn. Because this was King Henry’s second wife who did not give him a boy through birth, he was upset and decided to get his marriage annulled amongst the Catholic Church. Later on in time, after the annulment about two and a half years after the birth of little Elizabeth, King Henry the 8th called for the execution of Anne Boleyn. But, because Elizabeth was still King Henry’s daughter and part of the Tudor Dynasty she was still technically in line for royal succession. (Levin)

When King Henry the 8th was no longer king, due to his death, and the next woman in line before Elizabeth, Queen Mary was no longer eligible to rule over England amongst the throne, also due to death; Elizabeth took over as the Queen Regnant of England and Ireland due to the system of royal succession. Queen Elizabeth was sworn in to power on November 17th, 1558 at the age of twenty-five. Although Queen Elizabeth was part of the same family and dynasty as the kings and queens before her, she did have many different beliefs that set her aside from the rest. For example one big thing that set her apart from her relatives was the fact that Queen Elizabeth believed firmly in a protestant religion. Other strange facts about Queen Elizabeth would be that she was one of few queens who did not have any children at all. Although Queen Elizabeth dated and had relationships with several different men while in her time on the throne she did not marry and did not have any children to add to the Tudor Dynasty. (Forty)

After the fall of the Spanish Armada, and the deaths of a few of Queen Elizabeth’s close friends around the same general time, Elizabeth seemed to have experienced a state of severe depression. Due to this melancholic issue Elizabeth’s health deteriorated over time and on March 24th 1603, Queen Elizabeth passed away at the age of 69. Elizabeth the first served 45 years as Queen Regnant of England and Ireland and goes down as a great ruler in history. (Forty)

Robert Devereux

By: B.Reis

Robert Devereux was born on November 10, 1566. He was the stepson of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. He was also a cousin of Queen Elizabeth, on his mother’s side. At age nine, he succeeded to the title held by his father, Walter Devereux, Earl of Essex(Bingham).

At age 20 he fought bravely against the Spanish in the Netherlands. In 1589 he disobeyed the queen, and joined Drake’s expedition to Lisbon. Thought his disobedience aggravated the queen, 1593 he was made a privy councillor(Wagner).

In 1596 Essex became a national hero when he shared command of the expedition that captured Cadiz from the Spanish(Wagner). A couple years later however the queen began to find Devereux too unruly. In one encounter with the queen, he turned his back to her. Despite all this, he is sent to Ireland in 1599 as lord lieutenant(Bingham). He agreed to an unfavorable truce, and when he returned to England the queen was furious that he disobeyed her.

Devereux was deprived of his offices and placed under house arrest by the queen as punishment for his actions in Ireland. He responded to this by planning a rebellion. The rebellion failed to gain public support and he was arrested and found guilty of treason. Robert Devereux was executed on February 25, 1601(Wagner).

William Cecil

By: M.Dufresne

William Cecil, also known as Lord Burghley, was very close with Queen Elizabeth I. He is recognized as one of her most closest and trusted adviser. William Cecil was a very hardworking man

and pursued a long term career in royal government. He dedicated a lot of his time to his career and always ready to put his country's needs before his own. As a loyal and discreet worker, Cecil was probably well admired by the queen.

William Cecil was born on September 13, 1520 (Gale). He was the son of a Northamptonshire family. As a young boy, Cecil served in the household of Henry VIII. He was training to become a lawyer. He received his education through St. John's College in Cambridge and Gray's Inn. In 1542, William Cecil became a member of Parliament. This would mark the beginning of his long career in royal government (Wagner).

In 1544, he married the daughter of sir Anthony Cooke. Cecil was married twice. Through his second marriage, he was given a son through Mildred Cooke. This would be their oldest son, Robert Cecil. Robert would eventually go on to become an involved member in royal government just as his father was. Along with raising Robert, the Cecil family took in and raised the child of Lady Katherine Gray for a short period of time (Bingham).

Becoming a member of Parliament is the event that sparked Cecil's career in royal government. In 1547, he entered the service of Edward Seymour. Seymour was the Duke of Somerset and the protector of the young King Edward VI. Throughout his career, Cecil was known as Queen Elizabeth's most trusted minister. However he supported Lady Jane Gray in 1533 on the induction of Mary I. As a result of his choice to support Lady Jane Grey, he lost his place in the council (Grummit).

William Cecil struggled of success throughout his career in royal government but there were a few successful moments in his career. He was appointed the position of secretary of state in 1550. In 1571, he was created first baron Burghley. He was also named lord tresasurer. Unfortunately, he was imprisoned in the Tower of London after the fall of the duke. Luckily, he was pardoned later on (Grummit).

He would continue to serve as the queen's minister until he reached his death in 1598. William Cecil died on November 4, 1598 in London. He was 76 years old when he died. His son, Robert Cecil, would go on to become his successor and strive for success just as his father did. Robert lived a very successful life after the passing of his father (Grummit).

The Spanish Armada

By: D.Adams

The Spanish Armada was a battle fleet, and carried the Spanish army on it. The boat was needed to protect the treasure that Spain was collecting in the America’s, from being raided and stolen by the English. Spain and England already don’t have a good history with each other. Their religious differences may cause many problems.

The people of England were mostly Protestant, and the people of Spain mostly Catholic. The Queen of England led many Protestants around her and in charge, officially making Protestantism the religion of England. Spain has always been the most catholic country in all of Europe When England became Protestant they started imprisoning the Catholic’s, and executing them. The Spanish would send them to the Spanish Inquisition which as a religious court and would find anyone other than Catholic’s guilty and have them executed. Some of these executions may have contained some form of torture before the actual execution. Spain used the treasures from the Americas to support its country, otherwise it would have been broke. England wanted Spain’s treasure, sending ships to go raid and capture it. The Spanish sent an Armada to defend its treasure. “the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 elevated England to the foremost sea power of the time. It also confirmed the superior of long-range gunfire at sea to close-range boarding, which changed naval tactics for centuries” (MEWH). England became a great sea power after defeating the Spanish armada. They also set the standard of naval tactics everywhere.

The Spanish Armada was an attempt to prevent the English from stealing their treasures. They felt so strongly about the English stealing their treasures for many reasons, including religion because they were so hostile towards each other.The Armada was well armed but never restocked and destined to fail and be defeated. The defeat of the Spanish Armada made the English a naval sea power to be reckoned with.

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