Leukemia

The cancer of blood cells and bone marrow

What is Leukemia?

Leukemia occurs when cancerous blood cells takes over healthy blood cells in bone marrow. It can either be acute or chronic. Acute leukemia is when the cancer spreads and worsens quickly, while chronic leukemia spreads slower and worsens over time. (National Cancer Institute Staff)
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Fig 1. Cancerous blood cell (Grever)

The 4 Major Types

ALL- An acute lymphocyte cancer,

CLL- A chronic lymphocyte cancer,

AML- An acute mylogenous cancer

CML- A chronic mylogenous

(National Cancer Institute Staff)

What are some symptoms of Leukemia?

Anemia (a small count of red blood cells) result in weakness, fatigue, and a shortness of breath. Other symptoms such as the swelling of the armpit , neck or groin are from Leukemia spreading to the lymph nodes. The lymph nodes become swollen. A low platelet count, or thrombocytopenia, result in easy bruising and bleeding. Finally an enlarged liver or spleen result from abnormal cells in those areas. This means that one may lose their appetite, and there may be swelling in the upper left side of the abdomen (Center Treatment Centers of America Staff)
Leukemia: What are the symptoms? | Norton Cancer Institute
"Cancer Care - Louisville, KY - Norton Cancer Institute | Norton Healthcare." Norton Healthcare. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2015.

How Prevalent is Leukemia?

Leukemia is amongst the most common cancer for children, yet it occurs most frequently with elders. Leukemia frequently targets children under the age of 15, and the majority or people affected by the cancer are over the age of 55. Leukemia is the second most frequent blood cancer and affects several people throughout the world. (National Cancer Institute Staff)

How is it Diagnosed?

Leukemia can be diagnosed, even before the symptoms are prevailed. The cancer can be detected through a blood test. If the results show irregular levels of platelets and white blood cells, it is likely the patient has Leukemia. A physical is also useful in the diagnoses, to search for symptoms such as bruising or swelling of the abdomen. Finally the bone marrow test is a thorough procedure for diagnosis. A large needle is injected in the hipbone to collect a bone marrow sample. This test can return a diagnosis and determine the cancer type (Mayo Clinic Staff)
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Fig 2. Bone Marrow Test (Regional Medical Laboratory Staff)

What are the possible causes of this type of cancer?

Leukemia isn’t too well researched on how it evolves, but it’s known to occur when blood cells mutate. Some increased risks do include being a male, smoking, exposure to certain chemicals, being exposed to radiation, past cancer treatments, disorders, blood disorders, and having a family history of leukemia. (National Cancer Institute Staff)
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Figure 3: Leukemia Cancer Incident Rates by Sex (© 2008 – 2014 State of New Mexico)

What happens at the cellular and molecular level?

Leukemia attacks white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. When the cells get old or damaged, they die and new cells replace them. When someone has leukemia, bone marrow makes abnormal white blood cells, which are leukemia cells. Unlike normal blood cells, leukemia cells do not die when they should. Leukemia cells sometimes overpower/overpopulate normal blood cells and platelets, which makes it difficult for normal blood cells to work. (Mayo Clinic Staff)
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Figure 4: Normal Blood and Leukemia (© 2015 Beveite)

What are the treatments? What are the cures?

Since there are different types of leukemia, there is a different treatment for all of them. Advanced medical treatments include stem cell transplantation, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and immunotherapy. Bone Marrow Transplantation Program helps treat leukemia patients and umbilical cord blood transfusion/transplant with a mismatched family donor can help patients. Cancer Treatment Centers of America is an association designed to educate you on your form of cancer and treat you as best as they can. (Norton Cancer Institute)

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Figure 5: Bone Marrow Transplant (© 2007 Terese Winslow)

Work Cited

Izzy Work Cited:

"Leukemia." National Cancer Institute. National Cancer Institute, n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.

"Leukemia Symptoms." Leukemia Symptoms & Signs. Cancer Center, 01 Jan. 0001. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.

"Leukemia." Tests and Diagnosis. Mayoclinic Co., n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.

"A Snapshot of Leukemia." National Cancer Institute. National Cancer Institute, n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.


Christos Work Cited:

Mayo Clinic Staff. "Leukemia." Causes. © 1998-2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 26 Mar. 2015. Web. 22 Dec. 2015.

"Regional Medical Laboratory." BONE MARROW COLLECTION. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2015.

"Leukemia Research." The James. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2015.

"Cancer Care - Louisville, KY - Norton Cancer Institute | Norton Healthcare." Norton Healthcare. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2015.




Izzy:


Annotated

"A Snapshot of Leukemia." National Cancer Institute. National Cancer Institute, n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.

The National Cancer Institute is intended to inform people about cancer. It gives an insight of cancer for patients and their loved ones. It primarily focuses on cancer prevention, screening, diagnosis and treatment. The sight is purely science based. The article I used presented important facts and summarized Leukemia in a good manner This source is credible because it was published on November 5th, 2014. Its is a recent and up to date article. The article lacked bias, and only used facts rather than emitting diction or connotation. From the source, I was able to obtain facts about the cancer. This included the 4 major subtypes and a summary of Leukemia. The author of the article was the National Cancer Institute Staff. The staff are all medical experts in science and are credible according to scientific and medical history.



Christos:


Annotated

Mayo Clinic Staff. "Leukemia." - Mayo Clinic. © 1998-2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 26 Mar. 2015. Web. 22 Dec. 2015.

Mayo Clinic is a non profit world wide medical care association that educates and cares for patients from all walks of life. Mayo Clinic’s mission is to inspire hope and contribute to health and wellbeing by providing the best care to every patient through clinical practice, education and research. Their priorities are for the patient focus to be number one throughout the entire organization in every department in every location. More than a million people from all fifty states come to Mayo Clinic, and nearly 150 countries a year come to Mayo Clinic for care. They have been around for almost two decades and their data is fairly up to date. This source is the second most current course I have. They’re credible because they are well trusted among millions of people and they are non profit. They don’t show bias and state broad facts that represent their mission to educate.