GENETICS

Regan Sikes

DNA & RNA

DNA is deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.

RNA is a ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins

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Traits/ Heredity

  • Trait: an inherited characteristic
  • Ex: blue eyes
  • Heredity: process in which qualities are passed on from parent to child
  • Ex: hairline
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Dominant & Recessive

  • Dominant: a trait that is shown, covers up the recessive trait.
  • Ex: Brown eyes are dominant
  • Recessive: a trait is only shown when both traits are recessive;
  • Ex: blonde hair
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Punnett Squares

  • diagram used to predict the outcome of a certain breeding
  • Phenotype: characteristic seem Ex: tall or short, hair color
  • Genotype: allele combination; Ex: TT,Tt,tt
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x-linked disorders

caused by gene alteration on the X chromosome; Ex: hemophilia, muscular dystrophy

DNA Replication

  • Process of producing 2 identical replicas from one DNA strand
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Protein Synthesis

  • DNA encodes for production of amino acids and protein
  • Transcription: process of making an RNA copy of a gene sequence
  • Translation: process of translating the sequence of a messenger RNA molecule to a sequence of amino acids and proteins
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Genetic Engineering

  • process of manually adding new DNA to an organism
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DNA fingerprinting

  • test to identify and evaluate the genetic information; Ex: gel electropharesis

Mitosis

  • cell process in which chromosomes in a nucleus are separated into 2 identical sets; asexual
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Gametes

  • mature sexual reproduction cell;l Ex: sperm and egg

Haploid and Diploid

  • Haploid: only one set of chromosomes
  • Diploid: paired chromosomes, one set form each parent
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Gregor Mendel

  • father of genetics
  • discovered fundamental laws of inheritance through his study of pea plants
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Watson and Crick

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Mutations

  • natural process that changes a DNA sequence
  • Insertion: extra base pairs and inserted into a new place in DNA
  • deletion: base pairs are taken out of DNA strand
  • substitution: exchanges one base for another