The Disappearing Spoon: Chapter 17
Smore created by Kayla Shook
Spheres of Splendor: The Science of Bubbles
Elements and General Facts
Electron configuration- 1s^1
Hydrogen was discovered by Henry Cavendish while working in a lab in 1766. Hydro meaning "water" and Genes meaning "forming" composes this elements name due to water being formed when Hydrogen is burned (Hart, 2011).
Electron configuration- 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 3d^10 4ss^2 4p^6 4d^2 5s^2
Classification- Transition Metal
Zirconium was first discovered by a Swedish chemist named Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1824 while he was continuing the work of Martin Heinrich Klaproth. Klaproth was studying the mineral of zircon and believed there was another element that made up this mineral besides silica and oxygen and Berzelius was the chemist that proved this theory. However, it wasn't until 1914 that the element of Zirconium was produced.
The name Zirconium comes from the mineral zircon that this element was found in (Institute, 2011).
Electron configuration- 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 3d^10 4s^2 4p^6 4d^10 5s^2 5p^6
Classification- Noble Gas
Xenon was discovered by Sir William Ramsay, a Scottish chemist, and Morris M. Travers, an English chemist in 1898, through the study of liquefied air. Xenon received its name from the Greek word, 'Xenon', meaning stranger. This name was chosen due to Xenon only making up 1 part per 11.5 million in Earths atmosphere (Institute, 2012).
Electron configuration- 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 3d^10 4s^2 4p^6 4d^10 4f^14 5s^2 5p^6 5d^10 5f^14 6s^2 6p^6 6d^2 7s^2
Classification- Transition Metal
Rutherfordium was first reported in 1964 by a group of scientists working at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia while working with the atoms of Plutonium -242 and Neon-22. However, in 1969 a group of scientists working at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory in Berkeley, California tried using different elements with different isotopes to create Rutherfordium and successfully created this element, just with different isotopes. The ultimate founder for this element is still debated to this day.
Rutherfordium is named after the scientist Ernest Rutherford (Lenntech, 2014).
Electron configuration- 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4^s2
Classification- Alkaline Earth Metal
In 1808, Calcium was discovered by Sir Humphrey Davy while using the process of electrolysis to isolate this element from the compound of lime. The meaning of this name comes from the latin word 'calx', meaning lime (Hogan, 2013).
Electron configuration- 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 3d^10 4s^2 4p^6 4d^10 4f^14 5s^2 5p^6 5d^10 6s^2 6p^6
Classification- Noble Gas
The element, Radon, was discovered in 1900 by the German chemist, Friedrich Ernst Dorn. Dorn was studying the decay chain of Radium when he discovered this element. The name, Radon, came from the fact that Radon is obtained through the process of Radium's decay. (Hogan, 2011)
Significance of Element
- The compound of H2O, water.
- Alternative fuel.
- H2O2: an efficient cleaner known as Hydrogen Peroxide.
Can be used as a welding and a cooling substance.
- Zirconium does not absorb neutrons making it a very effective fuel while working with nuclear reactors.
- When Zirconium is mixed with the element, Niobium, it results in a product with a high superconductivity (the ability to conduct electricity without much energy loss).
- Zirconium is found in everyday products such as deodorant, lamp filaments, and the artificial gem-stone know as Cubic Zirconia.
- Used in photographic flash lamps
- General Anesthetic
- Xenon can be used to image the heart, brain, and lungs.
Rutherfordium has no uses besides those of scientific study due to its most stable isotope, rutherfordium-267, having a half-life of only an hour and twenty minutes.
Studies have been conducted with this element, however, there has not been a lot of definite information on the element. Scientists have predicted that this element has basic properties similar to those of other group 4 elements, titanium, zirconium, and hafnium (Lenntech, 2014).
- Sanitary purposes, one example is toothpaste.
Calcium is a very unique metal due its difference from the other alkaline metals. Calcium differs from these metals because it is less chemically reactive and does not cause skin burns! When Calcium and water mix, small amounts of carbon dioxide is released (17,299) (Hogan, 2013).
- Small amounts of Radon are used as cancer treatment.
Radon is a unique element due to it being completely nonreactive and being the most dense gas recorded (Hogan, 2011).
Calcium- A state where overlap and lose their spherical shape is known as Calcium and the best known example of this in the human body is out bones (17,298). The bones in our body have a very porous texture in the center that resembles a foam and foam is just a repetition of overlapping bubbles.
Radon- Radon was found by Earnest Rutherford through using a technique of bubble science. Rutherford did this by taking an active sample of decay that was in a closed container. Rutherford then drew bubbles off the gas into the inverted flask. These bubbles gave Rutherford all of the information that he needed to prove the existence of this new element (17,302).
Xenon- When Xenon is under high pressure, this element has no other way to get rid of its stored energy. This results in the element putting all extra energy into bubbles and releasing the excess energy this way.
Rutherfordium- Earnest Rutherford with the help of Kelvin discovered this element trapped inside of primordial uranium rock in pockets shaped as bubbles. Rutherford waited until the death of his partner to come forward about this discovery, which led to a new prediction on the Earths actual age (17,306).
Zirconium- Zirconium is found inside of the element, Zircon. Zircon, unlike other soft limestone, has survived since the beginning days of Earth, due to its hard, poppy-seed shape. The unique structure of Zircon sucked up Uranium and Zirconium particles that resemble bubbles in this substance (17, 307).
Hart, D., & , S. (2011). Hydrogen. Retrieved from http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/51cbee0c7896bb431f695c0d
Institute, M. (2011). Zirconium. Retrieved from http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/51cbef4f7896bb431f69d8a9
Institute, M. (2012). Xenon. Retrieved from http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/51cbef4b7896bb431f69d69e
Hogan, C. (2011). Radon. Retrieved from http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/51cbeec27 896bb431f69a143
Hogan, C. (2013). Calcium. Retrieved from http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/51cbed257896bb431f690175
Lenntech. (2014). Rutherfordium. Retrieved from http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/rf.htm