Silicon (Si)

Who am i?

One of the many elements in the periodic table is Silicon (Si). Silicons atomic number is 14 and it has a mass of 28.09. It also has 14 protons, neutrons and electrons. Silicon is a metalloid and its found in period 3, group 14. 'Silicon's name comes from the Latin word 'silex' which means flint.
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Silicons Bohr-Rutherford diagram

Silicon has 14 electrons and the first orbit can only hold 2 while the rest may hold up to 8, 2 electrons on the first orbit, and 8 on the second so you are left with 4 electrons that will be in the last orbit which is also called the valence orbit, make up silicon.

Properties

Physical

-state: solid

-color: grey

-density: 2.3296

-melting point: 1414°C

-boiling point: 3265°C

Chemical

-reacts with oxygen, magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium, or iron.

-combustible when in powder form

History

Jons Berzelius, a Swedish chemist, discovered silicon in 1823 by heating chips of potassium in a silica container and them carefully washing away the residual by-products. Silicon is the seventh most abundant element in the universe and the second most abundant element in the earth's crust.

Societal Connection

Silicons affect on society

Silicon is used in technology, silicone rubber is an essential component in providing proper insulation for computer and technical wiring. Silicon is also used in textiles and household items, it can alter a fabrics texture as well as make a material waterproof. Silicon in automobiles and architecture is responsible for protecting buildings and cars from extreme weather and general environmental stress.


Where Silicon can be found

Silicon makes up 27.7% of the Earth’s crust by mass and is the second most abundant element. It does not occur uncombined in nature but occurs chiefly as the oxide (silica) and as silicates. The oxide includes sand, quartz, rock crystal, amethyst, agate, flint and opal. Elemental silicon is produced commercially by reducing sand with carbon in an electric furnace.


Environmental Concerns

A large number of studies have been conducted to evaluate the fate and effects of silicones in the environment throughout their life cycle. Subsequently, the environmental fate of silicones depends to a large extent on the nature of the application, the physical form of the material and the method of disposal.

Bibliography

Article Title: Industrial Applications of Silicon-based products.

Website Title: Industrial Applications of Silicon-based products.

URL: http://www.thomasnet.com/articles/plastics-rubber/silicone-products-industrial-applications

Article Title: Water Treatment Solutions

Website Title: Silicon (Si)

URL: http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/si.htm

Article Title: Silicon Atomic Number is 14 Symbol is Si Atomic Mass is 28.09 Pure Silicon.

Website Title: Presentation ""

URL: http://slideplayer.com/slide/7648800/

Article Title: Silicon - Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table

Website Title: Silicon - Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table

URL: http://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/14/silicon