Blood project

Basic Anatomy

Overall blood characteristics

RBC: 40-50 %

WBC: 1%

Platelets: 20% of RBC

Plasma: around 55%

Blood continued

- Male: 5-6 Liter

- Female: 4-5 Liter

Blood is produced in Bone marrow

The production of Blood is controlled by different Hormones like erythropoietin.

There is basically one Blood Stem cell that is divided in different parts of the blood.

Plasma

What it looks like and characteristics: 90% water, 10% protein. yellow like.

Function: help blood to clot, transport proteins, hormones and nutrients to maintain homeostasis.

separated by centrifuge. you donate plasma at a plasma center, they are specialized for plasma donation.

Payment: The person giving plasma is officially compensated for their "time and trouble" not the plasma itself.

Red Blood cells ( Erythrocytes)

Rbc : live around 120 days. produced by red bone marrow.

Function: contains hemoglobin which transports oxygen to help to maintain homeostasis.

Hematocrit test: Shows how many red blood cells the blood contains. Also shown with a centrifuge.

Why is Hemoglobin important. Hemoglobin indicates the blood's ability to carry Oxygen.

iron deficiency anemia: blood can't carry oxygen effectively without iron. you can treat it with eating iron-rich food.

hemolytic anemia: red blood cells are removed or destroyed before their normal lifespan ends. Different treatments are, Blood stem cell transplants, Blood transfusion and medicine

hemorrhagic anemia: anemia caused by the sudden and acute loss of blood. Treatment is to stop the bleeding and , if needed, transfusion of blood.

Sickle cell anemia: Red blood cells are sickle shaped because the got a wrong form of hemoglobin.

Bone marrow and blood stem cell transplant are some treatments for it.

pernicious Anemia: Pernicious anemia is a decrease in red blood cells that occurs when the intestines cannot properly absorb vitamin B12. Treatments are to inrease your vitamin B12 level, by shots or by mouth.

Polycythemia: the body has to many red blood cells. you can divide Polycythemia in primary and secondary causes.In primary polycythemia the increase in red blood cells is due to inherent problems in the process of red blood cell production.Secondary polycythemia generally occurs as a response to other factors or underlying conditions that promote red blood cell production. Treatments are : Blood letting, Hydrea, Aspirin.

Blood donation: First, you have to do some health test, when you pass them you can donate blood. Regularly Blood donation take 8-10 minutes. After about 15 minutes you can leave the place and continue your daily routine. you can donate blood every 16 weeks. Blood is used to treat patient that lost blood during surgery or in accidents. Donated blood lasts 42 Days. You need to have at least a specific weight, depends on how tall your are, you need your ID or Drivers license.

White blood cells. (leukocytes).

White bloods cell are 1% of your blood and their function is to protect from illness and diseases. Produced in Bone Marrow.

White blood cells are protecting our Body from external Bacteria so that the body can maintain homeostasis.

Monocytes: They have a longer lifespan than many white blood cells and help to break down bacteria.

Lymphocytes: They create antibodies to defend against bacteria, viruses, and other potentially harmful invaders.

Neutrophils: They kill and digest bacteria and fungi. They are the most numerous type of white blood cell and your first line of defense when infection strikes

Basophils: These small cells appear to sound an alarm when infectious agents invade your blood. They secrete chemicals such as histamine, a marker of allergic disease, that help control the body's immune response.

Eosinophils: They attack and kill parasites, destroy cancer cells, and help with allergic responses


Leukopenia: low level of white blood cells. the basic leukopenia treatment and its prevention are to have a healthy and balanced diet which can ensure necessary vitamins and minerals in it.

Also, it is important that a person should take enough sleep required for a person.


Leukemia:Leukemia is cancer of the body's blood-forming tissues, including the bone marrow and the lymphatic system. The bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells, which don't function properly. Different Treatments for leukemia are: Induction therapy(ills leukemia cells in the blood and bone marrow to induce remission) , Consolidation therapy( kills leukemia cells),Maintenance Therapy ( prevent leukemia cells from growing).


Mononucleosis: increase of an particular type of mononuclear white blood cells (lymphocytes) . Often no treatment needed, sometimes you use antiviral drugs.


multiple myeloma: Multiple myeloma is a cancer that forms in a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. Multiple myeloma causes cancer cells to accumulate in the bone marrow, where they crowd out healthy blood cells. Rather than produce helpful antibodies, the cancer cells produce abnormal proteins that can cause kidney problems. Often there is no treatment needed. Other treatments are; surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation or stem cell transplant.

Thrombocytes ( platelets)

They are fragments of a large cell called a megakaryocyte. They are the smallest cell of the blood.

The function of Thrombocytes is the control and prevention of bleeding. That is how Trombocytes help to maintain homeostasis.


Hemophilia: Hemophilia is a rare disorder in which your blood doesn't clot normally because it lacks sufficient blood-clotting proteins (clotting factors). If you have hemophilia, you may bleed for a longer time after an injury than you would if your blood clotted normally.The main treatment for hemophilia is called replacement therapy.These infusions help replace the clotting factor that's missing or low.Clotting factor concentrates can be made from human blood.


Coumadin( warfarin): Helps to prevent new blood clots from forming, and helps to keep existing blood clots from getting worse. Treat/prevent: heart attacks, strokes, blood clots in veins and arteries.


Heparin: Heparin is used to treat and prevent blood clots in the veins, arteries, or lung. Heparin is also used before surgery to reduce the risk of blood clots.


Aspirin:Aspirin is used to treat pain, and reduce fever or inflammation. It is sometimes used to treat or prevent heart attacks, strokes, and chest pain (angina). Aspirin should be used for cardiovascular conditions only under the supervision of a doctor.

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