Is Canada the greatest country?

Final Evaluation / Hashim Hamed / 796033

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Is It?

We have our own opinions, we are entilted to them, and this page will tell you mine.

Throughout the year we have learned about Canada through four main units


  • Changing Populations
  • Interactions in the Physical Environment
  • Managing Canada's Resources
  • Livable communities
It is through these four aspects that we can draw to the conclusions that Canada is...

Changing Populations

Split into Demographics (w/o Migration), Migration, and Aboriginals

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Demographic Transition Model and Population Pyramid

Canada's demographics are like that of most developed nations, at a stage 4 in the Demographic Transitional Model, this is the stage we want to be in, since a small natural increase is good as it means the population remains in constant yet slow growth which can help the country grow smoothly.


This however can be worrying because if this trend continues we could experience natural decrease which would negatively impact the nation because there will be less people to operate a larger economy that needs a population to grow with it, that is a problem


This problem will likely not occur in Canada because the migration rate is high and currently contributes to 2/3 of our population growth rate, this is good because it keeps the population growing and provides other benefits (will be explained later)

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Canada's Population Pyramid is a typical developed country, steadily throughout the age groups and then decreasing once reaching senior years by each age group


The problem with Canada's population pyramid is that the age group with the largest population is the older adult group (50-63), this is because this is the baby boomer generation. The problem is that towards the upcoming decade, this generation will reach the senior years and eventually die.


Summary of points

Positive Factors

  1. We are currently in stage 4 and this is good since a small natural increase is good as it means the population remains in constant yet slow growth which can help the country grow smoothly
Negative Fctors
  1. Our DTM shows that we are heading toward natural decrease which is bad because we will have less people to operate a larger economy
  2. We will have large amounts seniors to take care of, this stresses the economy
  3. When they die, the death rate will increase, this will send us into a period of natural decrease

Migration

Currently, Migration accounts for 2/3 of the population growth rate in Canada, that is further split into 4 categories


  • 65.5% Economic Immigrants
  • 23.9% Family Immigrants
  • 10.6% Humanitarian Immigrants
Economic Immigrants are brought in through the point system. This system is very faulty
  • It brings in people by levels of education not necessity, this means that some jobs are much more full than others, and some are very under-staffed. For example, there are many surgeons or architects (higher education jobs) working as taxi drivers or cashiers (lower-no education jobs) or even unemployed. If we need Carpenters or Plumbers (medium education schools), those are harder to find among immigrants because they aren't as desirable according to the point system
  • It only solves short term labor problems
  • Many of these educated workers brought in are being dumped along the less specialize workers because these workers are being given to Canadian born citizens
  • It ruins the lives of many of these immigrants because they have to lower their standards because of a lower income
  • It however does provide the country with immigrants that have high education standards so that their children will have similar standards


The system in which we bring in family immigrants is quite effective


  • It ensures that the family member coming into the country will have support so that they don't face poverty or other difficulties.
  • It helps immigrants grow larger connections and extend their communities to feel more at home in a new country


Canada brings in refugees according to the global number of immigrants, that means that in the past months and years, we have been accepting very large amounts of refugees because the Syrian Civil War and surrounding conflicts have displaced millions.


  • Canada provides these refugees with protection and shelter, basically saving their lives
  • This improves Canada's international reputation because it is seen as doing a very humanitarian act
  • This can persuade other countries to do the same
  • Lowers the number of global refugees
  • Refugees unfortunately can find themselves having difficulties in surviving in Canada because their is a tough job market and Canada is a generally expensive country


Summary of points

Negative factors

  • The point system with its many faults
  • Refugees have trouble adjusting to the Canadian economy/culture

Positive factors

  • The second generation of high skill immigrants will maintain similar habits, creating a highly educated generation
  • Family Immigrants support each other and build connections and communities
  • Refugees are saved
  • Canada's international reputation is improved

Aborigials

Like most colonized nations (Australia, U.S. , New Zealand, i.e.); Canada's aboriginal people were abused and continue to be so, the land that was their's for generations was taken over by colonizing European nations who killed many of them and used them. There are a few positives to this


  • Europeans established trade networks with Aboriginals that allowed them to trade furs mainly, this was profitable for both sides, companies like the Hudson Bay Trading Company were formed through this
  • Many aboriginals were caught in between the conflicts of colonizing nations. When the British and French were at war in the New World, the Iroquois and Huron peoples had to take sides, this killed many of their people
  • Their lands were "bought" from them for ridiculous deals, the area of land were Toronto sits on today was bought from the resident aboriginals for a price of $200, considered one of the largest scams in Canadian History.



Royal Proclamation of 1763

Was a bill passed by the crown that had two points

  1. Land ownership rights of the First Nations were to be respected
  2. First Nations should receive fair payment for land they gave up


The Indian Act of 1876

  • The government of Canada and the aboriginals signed treaties that required aboriginal peoples to give up their claims to the lands they occupied.
  • The aboriginal approval is thought to have been faked or was the result of tricking the aboriginal leaders
  • Under the treaties, these peoples were to receive usual cash payments and goods.

Residential Schools

These were schools established by the Government of Canada that operated from 1870-1990 in an effort to assimilate children the ages 4-16 into Canadian culture. The results were devastating


  • Children were taken from their parents without their permission
  • There weren't many well trained or proper teachers which means that these children did not receive proper education and were often abused and punished
  • This created many lost generations who had their childhood robbed from them, this creates for a generation of parents who can't raise there children.
  • That is why many Aboriginals have one of the highest suicide rates, have physcological issues, drug and alchohol abuse, After all, they do not have proper parents to raise them.
  • Aboriginal culture was abolished because they were not allowed to speak their own languages or perform cultural acts in these schools, they would be severely punished for it
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Alberta Oil Aboriginal Abuse

The expansion of the oil industry into Alberta came at the expense of the aboriginals and the environment there

  • Their lands were being sold out for oil-purposes
  • Communities downriver of oil facilities were devastated because their water is poisoned, there are high levels of dangerous heavy metals.
  • People are getting sicker, cancer rates are high therefore a high death toll
  • Environmental refugees have emerged out of these aboriginals because they can't handle being close to this many toxins

Nunavut

This is the territory that was formed by the Canadian Government specifically for the Inuit people.


  • The government in Nunavut runs on traditional Inuit values and laws, like self government, this is good because it is a government made by the people, for the people


Summary of Points

Positive


  • European Nations were able to trade with aboriginals which helped both sides
  • The Royal Proclamation was intended to protect First Nation lands
  • The Canadian Government established Nunavut specifically for the Inuit

Negative


  • Aboriginals where caught in between conflicts of the new world which they suffered in
  • Their lands were taken from them or were "bought" from them for ridiculous deals
  • The Indian Act was an agreement faked by the Canadian Government were it allows them to take Aboriginal land
  • Residential Schools and their results
  • Albertan Oil Expansion Victims

Conclusion of Changing Populations

The greatness of this section is split into 3 sections


  1. Demographics (w/o migration): 6/10
  2. Migration: 7/10
  3. Aboriginals: 3/10

Canada earns a 16/30 in Changing Populations, a satisfactory result


  1. In Demographics: Canada earns a because it is currently doing well but in the future it can face difficulties 6/10
  2. In Migration: Canada earns a 7/10 because it is doing everything right except for the economic immigrant point system
  3. In Aboriginals: Canada treats its aboriginals very poorly, getting a 3/10

Interactions in the Physical Environment

Split into Physical Environment, Natural Disasters, and Global Warming

Physical Environment

Canada is the second largest country in the world, thereby it is natural for its environment to be very diverse and great.


Land-Form Regions

Canada has 7 land-form regions

  1. Canadian Shield
  2. Interior Plains
  3. Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands
  4. Hudson Bay-Arctic Lowlands
  5. Appalachian Mountains
  6. Inuitian Mountains
  7. Western Cordillera Mountains

These land-form regions of Canada are mostly great for the following reasons

  • The Canadian Shield and Great Lakes-St. Lawrence is covered in forests and lakes, this provides Canada with more fresh water which is necessary for any form of life and timber which are huge carbon stores.
  • The Interior Plains provide Canada with very fertile land because regular wildfires scorch the land and the dead organic matter is very useful to the agricultural industry that can contribute to Canada's economy
  • The Western Cordillera provide rivers from mountain precipitation but create inaccessible terrain because it is difficult to create any infastructure or any type of building.
Vegetation Regions of Canada

This very large landmass is covered in seven types of vegetation regions

  1. Deciduous Forest
  2. Mixed Wood Forests
  3. Boreal (and Taiga) Forest
  4. Cordillera Vegetation
  5. Tundra
  6. West Coast Forest
  7. Grasslands

These vegetation regions of Canada provide the following factors

  • The tundra is very cold due to the climate control Latitude and permafrost build up there, therefore, almost no trees are able to penetrate the soil, leaving the land covered in small shrubs. This is bad because this land is wasted and there aren't many important things that can occur there. It, however, does create beautiful fields covered in blooming flowers in the small summer growing window
  • Mixed Wood Forests are great because they provide habitats for organisms that survive in boreal (& taiga) forests, creating large amounts of diversity and interactions that wouldn't occur elsewhere, it also makes the soil more fertile because there are 2 completely different types of trees in an area. This makes the region suitable for agriculture
  • In the Boreal Forest, the coniferous trees do not lose their needles therefore the area of land they cover is usually dead. The needles are acidic which makes the surrounding soil acidic which does not allow other plants to grow there
  • The Deciduous Forest is very suitable for agriculture because the leaves fall and create a thick layer of humus making the soil very fertile. Deciduous trees can become very appealing in fall because their leaves turn orange-red
  • The West Coast Forest provides the perfect growing conditions for trees and creates the giant cedar and fir trees which are enormous carbon stores and they had benefited the lumber industry in the past
  • The grasslands are perfect for growing crops like grains and oilseeds because fires naturally sweep through the grasslands creating fertilizer. Some parts are good for grazing cattle because of the grasses. The grassland is very dry and crops need to be well cultivated.


Climate Controls

There are 6 climate controls, and all of them occur in Canada

  1. Latitude- The higher up the latitude, the colder. Yellowknife is colder than Toronto because of the latitude
  2. Ocean Currents- Warm Waters heat the surrounding land and Cold Waters cool the surrounding land. Vancouver is warmer than Edmonton because of ocean currents
  3. Wind & Air Masses- Wind in the jet stream that separates cold air from the warm air. Air masses carry moist, cold, dry etc. air from one place to another. Charleston is colder than Regina because of the cold moist air masses from the North Atlantic.
  4. Elevation- Air cools and precipitates when it rises in altitude. Vancouver receives lots of precipitation because of the Western Cordillera which.
  5. Relief- When air goes through multiple stages of elevation and becomes dry after passing through lots of elevated terrain, Edmonton receives dry air from the West Cordillera mountains
  6. Near Water- Land that is near water will be affected by the temperature of the water because water holds its temperature better than land, Toronto is cooler than Winnipeg because the Great Lakes heat up Toronto


  • Because Canada is a generally northern country, the latitude contributes to its climate greatly making it very cold and uninhabitable in areas.
  • The plains are dry because the relief from the Rockies and dry air masses coming in from the North. This contributes to calcification
  • Most of Southern Ontario has great weather because the great lakes hold heat from summer and the hot air coming from the U.S. furthers that heat balancing the hot and cold creating pleasant weather and temperatures.
  • British Columbia has lots of precipitation because the Rockies cause precipitation to fall, this creates a constantly rainy weather. This contributes to leaching


Summary of Interactions In the physical environment

Positive

  • The Canadian Physical Environment greatly benefits Canada's environment by providing it with timber, water, and agriculture.
  • The physical environment is very appealing and beautiful
  • Vegetation in Canada is very diverse and contributes to its variety and soil quality
  • The giant trees in B.C. are huge carbon stores that produce huge amounts of oxygen
  • The weather in Southern Ontario is great and that is good because it is where the plurality of Canadians are.

Negative

  • The Rockies create inaccessible terrain
  • Climate Controls make Canada a generally colder country, too cold
  • The soil experiences leaching and calcification in some areas.
  • The largest vegetation region has acidic soil.
  • The weather can be harsh at time
  • There is little life in the Tundra and little can be developed there
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Natural Disasters


Even though Canada experiences its fair share of natural disasters, this isn't a surprise due to its size.

  • Canada is located on the North American Plate, but the fault lines between the Juan de Fuca Plate, the North American Plate, and the Pacific Plate exists just west of B.C. This causes Earthquakes and Tsunamis to strike B.C. very often because of movement of the plates.
  • Fortunately, natural disasters don't occur near Southern Ontario, where the plurality of the population lives.
  • British Columbia (and barely Yukon) experience the most earthquakes and tsunamis in Canada, unfortunately, Vancouver and Victoria are highly populated, this means the stakes are higher
  • The Maritime Provinces experience Atlantic hurricanes , these happen every few years and don't claim many casualties but do lots of damage.
  • In 1775, The Great Newfoundland Hurricane claimed the lives of approximately 4000 along with clearing the waters around it of any fishing boats and British warships, now the most recent hurricane, Hurricane Igor (2010), claimed one life but $65 million in damages. As you can see, People are more prepared now and will head to high ground.

Preparation

  • Canadians are more prepared for Earthquakes, Tsunamis, and Hurricanes that occur because the public education system is required to teach them what to do if one struck or a warning is issued.
  • Advanced technologies allow for accurate predictions of where a natural disaster will strike which allow for warnings to be issued which can give people a chance to escape or prepare
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Summary of Natural Disasters

Positive


  • Southern Ontario experiences almost no natural disasters
  • Early Warning systems limit casualties because people get to escape before disaster strikes
  • The Canadian education system is great because it teaches youth what to do when disaster strikes

Negative


  • The West Coast is near the meeting point of many plates which make it vulnerable to tsunamis and earthquakes.
  • The East Coast receives some Atlantic hurricanes every few years
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The Effects Global Warming

Global Warming affects every country in the world, some countries more than others, for Canada, it will affect it in the following ways
  • Some lowland countries like Bangladesh and Netherlands will be devastated by rising waters more than highland countries like Scotland and Mexico. Canada has a generally high altitude and will not be affected much by rising water levels because of melting glaciers
  • Canada's forests will be the most affected aspect of global warming in Canada, these forests are very vulnerable, the forests of Canada will start to appear in random patches, some already existing forests might disappear, but new ones will form, this is bad because this will ruin many ecosystems.
  • The permafrost in the tundra will start to thaw from the south towards the north because the temperatures will be higher, this means that the tree line will be pushed farther North and trees and other organisms which is good because this means that more trees will grow and more carbon stores will appear, possibly benefiting the forestry industry
  • Dry Areas will get dryer, this means that that the grassland will expand, and communities in the grasslands will find themselves in an ever-expanding grassland, this means that it will eat up the forests surrounding it
  • Wet Areas will get wetter, this means that the west coast forest and British Columbia will experience more violent floods and harsher rainfall, this isn't good as Vancouver and Victoria are major population centres in Canada
  • Since Canada is a generally colder country, warmer temperatures could be beneficial to the livability of Canada in general
Summary of Global Warming

Positive

  • Rising water levels will not affect Canadian land much
  • The treeline and permafrost will be pushed farther North
  • Warmer temperatures meant that many regions in Canada will become suitable for life

Negative

  • Current Canadian forests will relocate or disappear and new ones could appear displacing ecosystems
  • The Grassland will expand eating up forests surrounding it
  • The West Coast forest and most of B.C. will experience harsher floods and rain

Conclusion of Interactions in the Physical Environment

This is ranked through 3 sections

Physical Environment: 7/10

Natural Disasters: 8/10

Global Warming: 8/10

Canada earns 23/30, a great result

Managing Canada's Resources

Split Into Canada's Economy and Natural Resoures

Canada's Economy

Canada's Economy is built upon its natural resources, In trade, Canada usually has a trade surplus because we trade these resources. The problem with our economy is that it is built upon a linear system, a system where we
  1. Extract
  2. Produce
  3. Sell
  4. Consume
  5. Dump

This is a linear system on a finite planet, this is obviously a problem since eventually, these resources will run out and then most linear system economies will collapse.

Estimates say we have 53.3 years of similar consumption. But ask yourself:

Then What?

Our leaders haven't considered this question yet which is definitely a problem, this is a problem most youth will live to see, our youth.


North American Free Trade Agreement

NAFTA is a free trade agreement signed between the U.S., Canada and later Mexico. It means that goods crossing borders do not have tariffs on them. This weakens local Canadian Businesses as some foreign goods are cheaper and they outcompete Canadian businesses which force them out of business weakening our economy in general. Only the U.S. benefits from this agreement


Energy Security Agreement

Canada has an energy security agreement with the U.S. where if the world or N.A. experiences mass energy shortages, the U.S. has energy security but Canada doesn't which is bad since Canada owns this energy, therefore in a large-scale disaster, we would be in the dark


Our dependency on oil exports puts us at risk because oil prices are never stable, they always fluctuate, for the last year or so, oil prices have been very low, and so has the Canadian dollar, which hurts us all. Only recently have oil prices started to recover and so has the Canadian dollar.


One of Canada's largest import categories is Motor Vehicle Parts and one of the largest export categories is Motor Vehicles. These parts are cheaper from abroad and it is more profitable to build the cars here.

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Summary of the Economy

Positive

  • Canada's economy is generally strong due to its natural resources
  • Motor Vehicles provide a powerful business model for the country

Negative

  • It is powered by a limited system in a limited world
  • NAFTA weakens out economy
  • The energy security plan secures our energy for the U.S. rather than ourselves

Natural Resources

In Canada, there are 5 industries


  • Agriculture
  • Fishing
  • Forestry
  • Mining
  • Energy


Agriculture

  • Crops and animals make up 1.5% of the GDP and 20% of jobs relate to the industry
  • Canada has a surplus in agriculture, therefore, it exports a good portion of it
  • It provides Canadians with cheap food, therefore, it isn't surprising that Canadians spend 25% of their income on food
  • Almost 90% of land in Canada is unsuitable for agriculture
  • The increase in mechanism decreases the # of workers
  • Farmland is around cities, but cities expand, therefore farmland is taken over
Fishing
  • Aquaculture accounts for 14% of the GDP
  • Canada has a large coastline and lots of freshwater systems, lots of fishing
  • Canada has better fishing practices/regulations than most other countries.
  • Fish like salmon are being overfished and are blocked from spawning.
  • Plastic in water kills fish
  • Overfishing is ruining the industry

Forestry

  • The forestry industry provides $81 billion to GDP and it provides Canadians with 360K direct jobs and 500K indirect jobs
  • Canada has very vast forests thanks to its vegetation regions
  • Canada has a short growing season, parasites, and wildfires destroy lot of trees
  • Canada can't compete with countries that don't have as strong regulation as Canada

Mining

  • Canada ranks 3rd in mineral production
  • Canada exports 80% of the minerals extracted, this largely contributes to the Canadian GDP; $83 billion
  • These minerals will eventually run out because they are non-renewable
  • Extraction can hurt its workers

The oil industry is unsustainable because

  • It contaminates local water sources
  • It creates huge amounts of pollution contributing to Global Warming
  • It consumes huge amounts of water, 1 litre of oil needs 4 litres of water
  • Ecosystems are completely destroyed to make way of this
  • Workers and people living around these facilities get sick much easier and have higher death rates
Energy
  • 20% of our energy goes to manufacturing
  • Our net trade value in energy is $23 billion
  • 90% of our exports go to the U.S.
  • A good portion of energy is from non-renewable resources which create pollution
  • The cost of this fuel is increasing
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Summary of Natural Resources

Positive

  • Natural Resources are very benefiting able to our economy
  • The Agriculture Industry provides Canadians with cheap food
  • Canada has strong regulations to protect its resources
  • Canada has the world's largest coastline and huge forests
  • Canada ranks 3rd in mineral extraction
  • 20% of our Energy goes to Manufacturing efforts

Negative

  • We depend too much on countries to purchase our resources
  • The Oil Industry
  • Mechanization replaces human workers
  • Cities take over forests and farms
  • Canada's land is mostly unsuitable for farming
  • Strong Canadian regulations give it a disadvantage in comparison to international competition
  • Overfishing and Over-logging are found in some areas
  • There are many obstacles that prevent fish and trees from growing
  • Minerals are non-renewable, the energy and mineral industries run on these
  • These industries create pollution


Summary of Managing Canada's Resources

The 2 sectors shape up the greatness of this sector

  • Canada's Economy: 9/15
  • Natural Resources: 12/15
  • Canada ranks at a 21/30, a good result
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Livable Communties

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Most of the Canadians live in cities, which means the settlement pattern is mainly concentrated.

Cities in Canada exist in 4 types


  1. Manufacturing Cities: Hamilton manufactures steel and Sarnia manufactures petrochemicals, etc.
  2. Transportation Hubs: Thunder Bay is a port, Winnipeg is a train route, etc.
  3. Tourist Cities: Niagra, Toronto, etc.
  4. Government Cities: Ottawa, Toronto, etc.


Farms in Canada were planned by the government, modern ones at least


  • The concession system of southern Ontario is effective because it was a proper grid system
  • The section system of the southern prairies was made before it was settled, it is bad because this was the same system used for the U.S. , but it doesn't work very well in the prairies because it is different terrain in the different land.


Communities in Canada are more sustainable than most of the rest of the world


  • Housing in Canada is mostly suburban housing, this is unsustainable
  • The food situation in Canada is good because Canada's agriculture industry produces all the food it needs, but Canada still imports lots of other food categories like fruits grown in warm temperatures
  • Canada's water situation is great because Canada holds most of the world's fresh water, from the Canadian shield to the great lakes. Oil, however, is staining these water sources making them useless and toxic
  • For Energy, even though Canada was once emerging as an energy superpower, most of its energy is owned by the U.S. because of the energy security plan


In Summary

Positive


  • The cities in Canada are varied between the 4 types which means that the Canadian Economy has some variation which is good
  • The concession system
  • Canada makes all the food it needs
  • Canada has secure water sources


Negative


  • The section system in the prairies
  • Suburban housing is unsustainable but most homes in Canada are of this type
  • It still imports food from warmer climates
  • Oil contaminates water
  • The U.S. owns most of Canada's energy



Rating

Canada's Livable Communities ranks at 24/30, a great result

Conclusion

If we add all of these ratings

Changing Populations: 16/30

Interactions in the Physical Environment: 23/30

Managing Canada's Resources: 21/30

Canada's Livable Communities: 24/30

Overall rating= 84/120 =70%

Canada is doing an overall good job in being a good country, definitely not the best, we could do a lot better. Therefore, the next generation needs to work towards achieving this goal so that their children can live a in a better Canada