Unit 9 & 10 Test Review

Civil War, Reconstruction, Inventions, & Immigrants

Civil War

  • Began in 1861, and ended in 1865.
  • Causes of the Civil War: states' rights, sectionalism, and secession
  • Sectionalism before the Civil War - Industrialized North (factories) and the Agricultural South (farms and plantations)
  • An effect of the Civil War was the abolishing of slavery. (13th Amendment)
  • Abraham Lincoln - President during Civil War; issued the Emancipation Proclamation, wanted freedom for the slaves, and did not believe in secession.
  • Underground Railroad - system of secret routes, led by Harriet Tubman, used by escaping slaves that led from the South to the North and Canada.
  • During the Civil War there was a shortage of certain goods. The PRICE of these goods RISES because the DEMAND is HIGH and the SUPPLY is LOW.
  • Memorial Day began to honor the fallen soldiers of the Civil War.


Reconstruction - rebuilding of the country after the Civil War; brought the Confederate states back into the Union.

  • 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendment all promoted equality.
  • 13th Amendment - abolished slavery
  • 14th Amendment - gave African Americans citizenship
  • 15th Amendment - equal rights for all

Inventions (Industrial Revolution)

The telephone, telegraph, and railroads made long distance communication easier and faster.

Eli Whitney's cotton gin made cotton farming easier. This led to more cotton being produced, so plantations owners made more money, which is money they spent to buy more slaves. This increased the slave population in the South, This is one example of how the Industrial Revolution led to the Civil War.

Transcontinental Railroad -

  • Built from 2 directions (Omaha, Nebraska and built west; Sacramento, California and built east)
  • Met in the middle at Promontory Point.
  • Increased trade and communications between the East and West.
  • Made it easier for more people to move West.


Immigrants - person who leaves one country to go live in another

Immigrants lived and worked in the East Coast of the United States. They did not come to American with much money and they lived in one-room homes.