Social-Emotional Development

birth to age 2


Temperament refers to the quality and intensity of emotional reactions. A passive infant withdraws from a new person or event. Children also differ in their level of irritability or tendency to feel distressed. Some may be difficult to comfort when they are crying, others don't cry, they don't let changes bother them. Babies need attention, if there's care provided for infants, most children will grow to be happy and well-adjusted.


The strong emotional connection that develops within the baby and other people is called Attachment. Most babies get attached to the people they are surrounded by during their early life. Most likely caregivers such as mother,father,grandparents etc. Several early attachment behaviors are shown by infants. Infants will single these out for special attention. Crying and clinging are also attachment behaviors.

Changes Over Time

During the first two years after birth,you will see many changes in children socially and emotionally, your actions as a caregiver affect how your child acts or changes. As you're spending more and more time with your baby, your baby begins to develop trust. If you meet children's needs and encourage them them to interact with others, they will learn to trust and care for others.

Birth To Three Months

* Newborns don't have refined emotions

* Child may show excitement by smiling/wiggling.

* Distress is shown by crying

* No tears when child cries this age.

* General excitement/distress are only emotions shown.

Three To Six Months

* Baby responds with smiles/laughter

* Make happy sounds when playing with them.

* Notice/smile at other babies.

* Crying still shows distress.

* Tears begin to appear when crying.

* Different cries as signals.

Six To Twelve Months

* Actively involved with caregivers.

* Express feelings (happy, sad, surprised etc.)

* Develop fear.

* Develop attachment to caregivers.

* Separation anxiety starts to show.

* Crying and become clingy when separated.

* Behavior continues until 14-16 months.

Twelve To Twenty-Four Months

* Become upset about things from the future.

* Become more interested in exploring.

* Start to take interest in other children.

* Play next to others, not with them.

* Become more aware of abilities.

* Proud when they do things for themselves.

* They learn how to say " no ".