Chapter 7

Extending the Table, Expanding the Cold War: Joseph Hatfield

Synopsis

This chapter discussed how scientific teams from all over the world were discovering new heavy elements at a very fast pace. Finding a new element just increased their hunger for more. It also mentioned how the Cold War affected scientific development. In Russia, Stalin felt that spending money on science was a waste of money and began arresting or killing many scientists who did not agree with his ideas (Chapter 7, page 65). He began forcing many of them to work in nickel mines where work conditions were harsh and the temperature was regularly -80 degrees Fahrenheit (chapter 7, page 66). These nickel mines polluted the air and it still sometimes snows pink or blue from other toxic materials being extracted (Chapter 7, page 66). Russian scientists could only move forward when they convinced Stalin that they could get closer to making a nuclear bomb in he kept scientists alive (Chapter 7, page 67). This is one way that some heavy elements were discovered at the Dubna lab.


The Cold War also kept the United States from advancing in some ways. Russia began using Fluorine in their water to help prevent tooth decay. The United States thought this was just another Communist way of torturing people, even though it was actually very beneficial. Three labs were in the race to discover the next element on the periodic table (chapter 7, page 66). These labs were in Berkeley, California; Dubna, Russia; and Darmstadt, Germany (chapter 7, pages 66-67). Momentum shifted as different labs pulled ahead or fell back. They were all racing to be the ones that got to name the element what they wanted, all while dealing with rising tensions between the U.S. and Russia. The Cold War period came with its good and bad discoveries (chapter 7, pages 65-67).

Fluorine

Atomic Number- 9

Mass- 18.998

Period- 2

Group- 17

Electron Configuration- 1s2 2s2 2p5

Classification- halogen


Fluorine cannot be found freely in nature because it is so reactive. It is often found in the form of cryolite (Na3AlF6) and fluorspar (CaF2).


Fluorine is important because it can help prevent tooth decay, used in glass to make light bulbs, and in air conditioning and refrigeration systems.


Fluorine was used as early as 1670 but was first isolated in 1886 by French chemist Ferdinand Frederic Henri Moissan.


Fluorine is very reactive and is always naturally found in a compound of other elements (Gagnon, 2016).


Fluorine is important because It can be added to water to help prevent tooth decay. It is also widely used in many types of glass, and as a coolant. It fits with the book because when Russia added to water, the Americans didn't see its benefit because of our relations to Russia. It changed the world because it is the main ingredient in toothpaste.

Nickel

Atomic Number- 28

Mass- 58.69

Period- 4

Group- 10

Electron Configuration- 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d8

Classification- transition metal


Most nickel is mined in Ontario, Canada.


Nickel is important because it can be alloyed with other metals to help improve the strength of the mix. It can be alloyed with various metals to make pipes, magnets, vaults, and machine parts.


Nickel was discovered in 1751 by a Swedish chemist Axel Fredrik Cronstedt.


Nickel is hard and is corrosion resistant. It is malleable and a fair conductor of heat. It is very often electroplated or alloyed to other metals (Gagnon, 2016).


Nickel is important because it is used with many other metals. It is very malleable and can combine to make tubing, coins, vaults, armor plating, batteries, and magnets. It fits in with the book because many people who worked in nickel mines developed different types of cancers from inhaling the gas that is created. It changed the world by creating a tubing that is resistant to corrosion from seawater and bio-fuel.

Berkelium

Atomic Number- 97

Mass- 247

Period-7

Group- none

Electron Configuration- 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 5d10 4f14 6p6 5f9 7s2

Classification- transition metal


Berkelium is an element that was artificially made in a lab.


Berkelium has no known uses outside of scientific research.


Berkelium was found at the University of California by Albert Ghiorso, Glenn Seaborg, Kenneth Street Jr, and Stanley Thompson in 1949. It is named after Berkeley, the city in which it was discovered.


Berkelium is radioactive, and has a half-life of 1,380 years (Gagnon, 2016).


Berkelium is important because it sort of started the movement to create new heavy elements. It fits with the book because it marked a time where many elements were created in labs through the process of bombarding it with alpha particles. It changed the world because it is very stable, and therefore was used as the target material to create heavier elements.

Californium

Atomic Number- 98

Mass-251

Period-7

Group- none

Electron Configuration- 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 5f10 7s2

Classification- transition metal


Californium was artificially produced in a lab


Californium is used to find oil layers for oil wells and to identify silver and gold ores.


Californium was found at the University of California by Albert Ghiorso, Glenn Seaborg, Kenneth Street Jr, and Stanley Thompson in 1950. It is names after the state that it was discovered in.


Californium is radioactive and is a very strong neutron source (Gagnon, 2016).


Californium was important because it created turmoil over its name. It fits in with the book because it was created at the Berkeley lab where many other scientific discoveries were made. It changed the world because it can be used to find oil deposits under ground.

Mendelevium

Atomic Number- 101

Mass- 258

Period- 7

Group- none

Electron Configuration- 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 5f13 7s2

Classification- transition metal


Mendelevium is artificially produced in a lab.


Mendelevium ha no known uses outside of scientific research.


Mendelevium was found at the University of California by Albert Ghiorso, Glenn Seaborg, Kenneth Street Jr, and Stanley Thompson in 1955. It was named after Dimitri Mendeleyev, a scientist who created the first periodic table.


Mendelevium is radioactive and only has a half-life of around 51.5 days (Gagnon, 2016).


Mendelevium is important because no one thought that any heavier elements could be created. It fits in with the book because it was discovered during the Cold War. It changed the world because it was discovered by Americans, but named after a Russian scientist during a time of turmoil between the two countries.

Nobelium

Atomic Number- 101

Mass- 258

Period- 7

Group- none

Electron Configuration- 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 5f13 7s2

Classification- transition metal


Nobelium was produced artificially in a lab.


Nobelium has no known uses outside of scientific research.


Nobelium was initially produced by a team of scientists in Berkeley, California (previously mentioned) in 1958. It was named after Alfred Nobel.


Nobelium is radioactive and only has a half-life of 58 minutes (Gagnon, 2016).


Nobelium is important because

Lawrencium

Atomic Number- 103

Mass- 262

Period- 7

Group- none

Electron Configuration- 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 5f14 6d1 7s2

Classification- transition metal


Lawrencium was produced artificially in a lab.


Lawrencium has no known uses outside of scientific research.


Lawrencium was discovered by a team of scientists in Berkeley, California in 1961. it was named after Ernest Lawrence (Gagnon, 2016).


Lawrencium is radioactive and only has a half-life of about 216 minutes.

Dubnium

Atomic Number- 105

Mass- 262

Period- 7

Group- 5

Electron Configuration- 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 5f14 6d3 7s2

Classification- transition metal


Dubnium was produced artificially in a lab.


Dubnium has no known uses outside of scientific research.


Dubnium as discovered by a team of scientists in Dubna, Russia in 1970. it as named after Dubna, the city in which it was discovered.


Dubnium is radioactive and only has a half life of about 32 hours (Gagnon, 2016).

Seaborgium

Atomic Number- 106

Mass- 266

Period- 7

Group- 6

Electron Configuration-

Classification- transition metal


Seaborgium was produced artificially in a lab.


Seaborgium has no known uses outside scientific research.


Seaborgium was discovered by a team of scientists in Berkeley, California. It was named after Glenn Seaborg.


Seaborg is radioactive and only has a half life of about 2 minutes (Gagnon, 2016).

Bohrium

Atomic Number- 107

Mass- 264

Period- 7

Group- 7

Electron Configuration- 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 5f14 6d5 7s2

Classification- transition metal


Bohrium was produced artificially in a lab.


Bohrium has no known uses outside of scientific research.


Bohrium was discovered by a team of scientists in Dubna, Russia. It was named after Niels Bohr.


Bohrium is radioactive and only has a half life of about 1 minute (Gagnon, 2016).

Hassium

Atomic Number- 108

Mass- 277

Period- 7

Group- 8

Electron Configuration- 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 5f14 6d6 7s2

Classification- transition metal


Hassium was produced artificially in a lab.


Hassium has no known uses outside of scientific research.


Hassium was discovered by a team of scientists in Darmstadt, Germany in 1984.


Hassium is radioactive and only has a half-life of about 9.7 seconds (Gagnon, 2016).


Hasssium is important because it was the first element to be discovered in the German facility. It fits in with the book because it was discovered during the Cold War.

Darmstadtium

Atomic Number- 110

Mass- 281

Period- 7

Group- 10

Electron Configuration- 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 5f14 6d9 7s1

Classification- unknown


Darmstadtium was produced artificially in a lab.


Darmstadtium has no known uses outside of scientific research.


Darmstadtium was discovered by a team of scientists in Darmstadt, Germany in 1994. It was named after the city in which it was first produced.


Darmstadtium is radioactive and only has a half-life of about 11 seconds (Gagnon, 2016).

Copernicium

Atomic Number- 112

Mass- 285

Period- 7

Group- 12

Electron configuration- 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 5f14 6d10 7s2

Classification- unknown


Copernicium was produced artificially in a lab.


Copernicium has no known uses outside of scientific research.


Copernicium was discovered by a team of scientists in Darmstadt, Germany. It was named after Nicolaus Copernicus.


Copernicium is radioactive and only has a half life of about 30 seconds (Gagnon, 2016).

References

Gagnon, Steve (9 January, 2016). The Periodic Table of the Elements. Retrieved from http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/