Organic Chemistry

Honors Biology pd. 5/6 Taylor Socki Alana Beam Tori Whitney

Basic Vocabulary

monomer - subunits of macromolecules


cellulose - makes up cell walls


glycogen - storage form of glucose in the liver


triglyceride - 3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol (pitchfork shaped)


starch - storage form of glucose in plants


primary level of protein - sequence of amino acids form a polypeptide chain


secondary level of protein - H bonds between 2 amino acids cause a helix to form


tertiary level of protein - helix folds due to bonding of R groups


peptide bond - joins 2 amino acids


polymer - chains of monomers


Disaccharide - 2 monosaccharides joined by dehydration


Polysaccharide - long chain of monosaccharides


Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are an organic molecule made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (1:2:1). Carbs provide short term energy and also provide structure in some organisms (anything with a cell wall or an exoskeleton.)

A. Monomer- monosaccharide- one sugar

ex. glucose, ribose, or deoxyribose- helps compose DNA in the body

B. Disaccharide- 2 monosaccharides joined by a dehydration reaction

C. Polysaccharides- long chains of monosaccharides (many sugars)

1. Starch- storage from glucose in plants

2. Glycogen- storage from glucose in the liver (animals)

3. Cellulose and chitin- make up cell walls (exoskeletons and in cell walls)

Lipids

Lipids are an organic molecule made of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen that is insoluble in water. ( note: ratio of H:O is much greater than 2:1) Lipids function as long term energy storage, insulation, and cell membranes. There are two types of lipids, saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds between Carbon atoms, are solid at room temperature, and are fats (lard/butter). Unsaturated fatty acids have double bonds between Carbon atoms, are liquid at room temperature, and are oils (ex: olive oil, canola oil). The monomers of lipids are glycerol and fatty acids, while the polymers are phospholipids (fat that makes up cell membrane) steroids (estrogen, testosterone and cholesterol) and waxes.


*below is an image of the formation and breakdown of a fat



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Proteins

Proteins are organic molecules made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen. The functions of proteins are support, transport, defense metabolism, homeostasis, and motion. Protein's monomer is amino acids.


Parts of amino acids:

Amino group (NH2)

acid (carboxyl group)- COOH

R group

Peptide bond (joins 2 amino acids)


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Nucleic Acids

Nucleic Acids are organic molecules made up of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid; genetic material) and RNA (Ribonucleic acid; copy of DNA used to make proteins). Nucleic Acids function as the code for the structure and function of cells, also as the code for proteins. The monomer is a nucleotide which contains a sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogen base.