History of the Americas

IB Study Review

Cold War:Topic 5

Exam 2012: In what ways, and with what significance did either Kennedy or Reagan influence the development of the Cold War?


  • Approved operation of Cuba's Bay of Pigs where the US. lost.
  • Ordered substantial increases in American intercontinental ballistic missile forces.
  • Added five new army divisions and increased the nation's air power and military reserves.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis; placed a naval blockade around Cuba
  • Sent 500 Special Forces Troops and Military advisers to Vietnam
  • Efforts to combat Communists influence in other countries
  • Khrushchev putting up the Berlin Wall
  • The United States joined NATO which spurred the Soviet Union to create an alliance with Eastern Europe
  • Pushed for a package of new social welfare spending program that he called the "New Frontier"
  • Put money into the Alliance for Progress to thwart Communists by ending poverty


  • Main contribution to the process was his willingness to move from his strong anti-communist and anti-soviet position but negotiated
  • Process of negotiations to progress
  • Agreed to resume the arms-control negotiations,which had ended after the Soviet Union walked out November 1983
  • Proposed the USSR and the U.S. reduce all strategic nuclear weapons stocks by 50% and announced plans fro a reduction int he number of Soviet missiles
  • Four U.S.-Soviet summits took place in Geneva, Reykjavik, Washington, and Moscow.
  • In the 1970's Nixon,Ford, and Carter pursued detente, the reduction of Cold War tensions and achievement of peaceful coexistence with the Soviet Union.
  • Creation of the Reagan Doctrine
  • Cold War policies were designed to spread freedom and democracy around the world
  • Strategic Defense Initiative intimated the Soviet leaders and the collapse of communism
  • Tearing of Berlin Wall