Chapter 19

Above (and beyond) the periodic table by: Haley cook

The Disappearing Spoon by: Sam Kean

In this chapter Sam Kean talk about rare elements and how to get to those elements you have to go above the limitations of the periodic table. This chapter states that one of the most rarest elements is Astatine. Astatine was found in 1939 by Emilio Segre(pg.333). To find the Astatine mental on the periodic table you look for"At".To find "At" scientist had to calculate all the odd elements near Uranium(pg.332). The next rarest element was Francium. Francium or "Fr" is a very fragile element and because of that the element is hardly ever used. The next element this chapter talk about is Einsteinium, then Actinium, and lastly we have Indium. The elements in this chapter except for maybe one or two we never use. They are so rare that they can never leave the research lab. This chapter mostly talked about how rare the elements are and how fast their "Life Spans" are and how the elements life span depends on how heavy it is. Like if an element is heavy it will have shorter life span then those other elements in this chapter(pg.134).

Astatine "At"

Atomic Number: 85

Atomic Mass: 210

Period: 6

Group: 17

Electron Configuration: 1s^2,2s^2,2p^6,3s^2,3p^6,4s^2,3d^10,4p^6,5s^2,4d^10,5p^6,6s^2,4f^14,5d^10,6p^5

Classified: Halogens metal

Astatine is not a natural occurring element. Emilio Segre and other scientist made for the first time Astatine "At' in a lab at the University of California in 1939-1940(Royal Society:Astatine). The scientist accidentally made Astatine by "bombarding bismuth with alpha particles"(Royal Society:Astatine). Even though no scientist will possibly ever create a visible sample of Astatine it's still used as a "quick-acting radioisotope in medicine"(pg.333). "At" works in the body because it is in the same group as the element Iodine "I" and in the body Astatine acts like Iodine. Astatine is one of the most rarest element of all and can hardly ever be used because it is so unstable.

Francium "Fr"

Atomic Number: 87

Atomic Mass: 223

Period: 7

Group: 1

Electron Configuration: 1s^2,2s^2,2p^6,3s^2,3p^6,4s^2,3d^10,4p^6,5s^2,4d^10,5p^6,6s^2,4f^14,5d^10,6p^6,7s^1

Classified: Alkali Metal

Francium is found in Uranium "U" materials and can also be artificially mad by adding protons to the Thorium. Mostly you will find this element in the Earth crust but "Fr" is almost as rare as "At" so you won't see it for long. Francium got its name by being Marguerite Perey's home country(1996-2015). Since Francium is so rare and very fragile and therefore it is basically useless(pg.332).

Einsteinium "Es"

Atomic Number: 99

Atomic Mass: 252

Period: 7

Group: N/A

Electron Configuration: 1s^2,2s^2,2p^6,3s^2,3p^6,4s^2,3d^10,4p^6,5s^2,4d^10,5p^6,6s^2,4f^14,5d^10,6p^6,7s^2,5f^10

Classified: Transition Metal

Einsteinium was named after the scientist Albert Einstein. "Es" was discovered by a group of scientist in 1952. They found this element when studying the fist Hydrogen bomb. Since the "Es" has not been made that much it has no real use in the world unless for scientific research(Gagnon).

Actinium "Ac"

Atomic Number: 89

Atomic Mass: 227.03

Period: 3

Group: 7

Electron Configuration: 1s^2,2s^2,2p^6,3s^2,3p^6,4s^2,3d^10,4p^6,5s^2,4d^10,5p^6,6s^2,4f^14,5d^10,6p^6,7s^2,5f^1

Classified: Transition Metal

Actinium was discovered in 1899 by Andrew Debierne in Paris. "Ac" came from apart of Uranium oxide and in 1902 a man named Friedrich Otto Giesel found the exact same thing and didn't know it already existed and named it "meaning"(Royal society: Actinium). "Ac" does not have any uses outside the scientific lab and it is a source of alphas rays but that the only thing that "Ac" could do(Royal society: Actinium).

Indium "In"

Atomic Number: 49

Atomic Mass: 114.82

Period: 5

Group: 13

Electron configuration: 1s^2,2s^2,2p^6,3s^2,3p^6, 4s^2,3d^10,4p^6,5s^2,4d^10,5p^1

Classified: Other Metal

Indium was discovered in 1863 by Ferdinard Reich and Hieronymous Richter in Germany. "In" was discovered when Ferdinard Reich was studying a different mineral zinc blend which contained a new element called Thallium. But since Reich was colored blind he had to ask Richter for help and Richter saw a violet line, and that how "In" got its name because in Latin Indium mean violet. Today "In" is company used in ouch screens, Flat Screens, and solar panels because Indium is used to make Indium Tin Oxide and that what make the touch screens, flat screens, and solar panel(Royal Society: Indium).

These elements are so rare that they really don't do anything the only elements that can stick around long enough to maybe do something is "At" and "Indium"(Which helps make touch screens". In this book all these elements are described as rare and not long lasting, but the book also talks about how to find and use these elements present and future scientist need to not be afraid to go past the limitations of the periodic table and got to the "Island of Stability" where there is a "New World" of elements to be found(pg.331).


Gagnon, S(n.d) The Element Einsteinium. Retrieved From

Kean, K.S. (2010) The Disappearing Spoon.

Royal Society of Chemistry (2016) Periodic Table:Actinium. Retrieved from

Royal Society of Chemistry (2016) Periodic Table: Astatine. Retrieved from

Royal Society of Chemistry (2016) Parodic Table: Indium. Retrieved From

Winter, M.(1993-2015).Francium:The Essentials. Retrieved from