The Holy Roman Empire
Otto I, Investiture Contest, Frederick Barbarossa
- Fall of the Carolingians (888)
- Otto of Saxony
ii. Protected the church in Italy
- Pope Gregory XII
ii. Proclaimed Otto of Saxony emperor; Holy Roman Empire begins
- There were conflicts between the papacy (the authority of the pope) and the emperors
ii. Popes enthroned medieval emperors
iii. Popes and emperors both held powerful authority— neither was able to overcome the other; strained relations
iv. Emperors wanted to have control over which people were given power within the local churches (bishops, patriarchs, archbishops,etc.); popes saw this decision as their own right
v. Popes hindered the emperors from ever building a powerful state; popes felt it would threaten their authority
- Had ambitions to absorb the wealthy region of Lombardy (in northern Italy) into the Holy Roman Empire.
- Popes disapproved of this ambition because other European states were supporting Italy.
- Papal alliances forced the emperor to give up his rights in Lombardy.