The Refrigerator

By Kaylin Brandsma

The Invention

The refrigerator is used to cool and preserve your foods for a long period of time without having the foods spoil, rot, or mold from bacteria and yeast. The first electrical Refrigerator was Invented in 1876 by Carl Paul Gottfried von Linde and one year later, he had put a patent on it in 1877.
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Kitchen Stoves, Oven, Refrigerators. Digital image. Pintrest, n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2015.

Before the Electrical Refrigerator

In earlier years, Many people would cool and preserve foods by storing it under snow and ice, putting food in cold streams, or cellars in holes in the ground lined with straw or wood and the packed it with snow and ice.
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Http:// Digital image. USGS Water Science School., 07 Aug. 2015. Web. 28 Sept. 2015.
Before the refrigerator, In 1000 B.C., the Chinese cut blocks of ice to store their foods and in 500 B.C., the Egyptians and Indians set water on earthenware pots to make ice over night because it was so cold in the evening.
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Lydia. The Ice Truck. Digital image. The Silver People Heritage (The Ice Truck). Word Press, 18 June 2009. Web. 29 Sept. 2015.
In 1805, Oliver Evans (an American inventor) designed the first refrigeration machine but didn't actually build it. The first design that Evans made was to lower the temperature of the food using refrigerant.
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Refrigeration Oliver Evans. Digital image. Refrigeration. Blogger, 31 Jan. 2014. Web. 29 Sept. 2015.
In 1820, Michael Faraday was able to liquify Ammonia (which helps the cooling process). Liquified Ammonia was vital to the new inventions and upgrades of the refrigerator to ensure proper function.
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Instruments for Ammonia Refrigeration Plant. Digital image. Nivelco Instruments – Refrigeration And Cooling. Aqua Technology Group, 11 Oct. 2014. Web. 29 Sept. 2015.
Jacob Perkins built the first practical refrigerating machine in 1834. Perkins came up with the idea of vapor cmpression for the refrigerator (and ice machine).
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Refrigeration Jacob Perkins. Digital image. Refrigeration. Blogger, 11 Sept. 2013. Web. 29 Sept. 2015.
In 1855, using Faraday's experiment, Dr. John Gorrie builds a compression refrigeration system. He was granted a patent for mechanical refrigeration (first U.S. patent). He cooled the refrigeration process by a rapid expansion of gasses and he condensed and ratified the air with two force pumps.
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Gorrie's Fridge. Digital image. Gorrie's Fridge. John Gorrie State Museum, n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2015.

After the Electrical Refrigerator

In 1915, Alfred Mellowes created a self-contained refrigerator. The difference and update was that the compressor was actually in the bottom of the refrigerator cabinet. Although updated, the company Guardian Refrigerator didn't sell a whole lot. (40 in two years)
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The History of the Refrigerator: Staying Cool Throughout the Ages. Digital image. Finding Dulcinea. Dulcinea Media Inc., 24 Nov. 2010. Web. 29 Sept. 2015.
In 1923, improvements started coming along. The company Frigidaire started reducing prices for the refrigerators. The first update on the refrigerator was adding ice cream cabinets to the 1923 models.
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Of Frigidaire Refrigerator | Coolers. Digital image. (Coolers). N.p., 15 Nov. 2014. Web. 29 Sept. 2015.
Then, the same company Frigidaire updated the 1924 model had soda fountain equipment. This equipment made it easier for people to get soft drinks right from their refrigerator.
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Electrical Goods and Appliances in the 19. Digital image. The People History: 1920's Appliances including Prices. The People History Where People Memories and History Join, n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2015.
In 1927, the refrigerator had now been updated to steel or porcelain cabinets started making its way. Also came the "Monitor Top" refrigerator, which was the most affordable General Electric Monitor refrigerator. The "Monitor Tops" sold like CRAZY!! In 1927, they were only $300.
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Untitled Document. Digital image. MONITOR TOP REFRIGERATORS History of the General Electric Monitor Top Refrigerator. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2015.
In 1931, Electrolux company invented the first air-cooled refrigerator. Air cooling refrigerators are more efficient to the refrigeration bussiness, so this was a uge advantage for the Electolux company.
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Electrolux Fridge Design: Innovation over the Years. Digital image. Electrolux. Electrolux, n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2015.
In 1947, the freezer and the refrigerator combine. The General Electric company finally puts the two-door combo in the market. By 1955, more than 80% of americans own a refrigerator.
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A Two-door Refrigerator (1947). Digital image. GE Immagination at Work (Innovations 1946-1956. GE, n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2015.

Video of how the first refrigerator was designed

Electrical Control of the General Electric Refrigerator Unit - ca. 1920
Museum Innovation of Science. "Electrical Control of the General Electric Refrigerator Unit - Ca. 1920." YouTube. YouTube, 8 Mar. 2013. Web. 28 Sept. 2015.

The Importance of the Refrigerator

The impact on the world was not immediate, but it started to become popular on the market in 1880's. By the late 1990's, 80% of Americans owned a household refrigerator. Some important later innovations were having the water and ice dispenser in your actual refrigerator. Also, another really important one is having shelves to store all of your food in specific areas. Although those innovations were really important, one of the greatest innovations of the refrigerator was putting the freezer and the refrigerator. By putting them together (instead of having to separate appliances), you can just have one. Without the invention of the refrigerator (or freezer), life would be hard because you wouldn't be able to save meat or vegetables from last night dinner for tomorrow's lunch, and whenever you wanted to have milk or any drink, you'd have to go and purchase it fresh instead of just getting up and looking in the fridge to see how much that beverage you have left. So, all in all, without the refrigerator, people would have to run into town everyday to get something new for dinner, more foods would be spoiled and wasted if not eaten right away, and producing foods would just be a pain because you wouldn't be able to cool any fresh food efficiently. So I'd say that the refrigerator is PRETTY important!!

Website Citations

FInder, The Great Idea. "Refrigerator History - Invention of the Refrigerator." Refrigerator History - Invention of the Refrigerator. The Great Idea Finder, 18 Aug. 2005. Web. 28 Sept. 2015.

Bellis, Mary. "The History of the Refrigerator and Freezer." Inventors., 17 June 2015. Web. 28 Sept. 2015.

Part Select. "Major Appliances, Major History - The Refrigerator & Freezer." Major Appliances, Major History - The Refrigerator & Freezer. Eldis Group Partnership, 1999-2015. Web. 28 Sept. 2015.

"What Is the History of the Refrigerator?" WiseGEEK. Conjecture Corporation, 2003. Web. 28 Sept. 2015.

"Ammonia Refrigeration - Properties of Ammonia." Ammonia Refrigeration - Properties of Ammonia. United States Department of Labor (OSHA), n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2015.

Chapel, George L. "Gorrie's Fridge." Gorrie's Fridge. John Gorrie State Museum, n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2015.

Chapman, Lindsey. "The History of the Refrigerator: Staying Cool Throughout the Ages." The History of the Refrigerator: Staying Cool Throughout the Ages. Dulcinea Media, Inc., 24 Nov. 2010. Web. 30 Sept. 2015.

"MONITOR TOP REFRIGERATORSHistory of the General Electric Monitor Top Refrigerator." Untitled Document. Antique Appliances, n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2015.