Africa History

KATE CADOGAN

Colonization Map

In Africa every country was colonized but Ethiopia and Liberia. I would say that most of the countries were colonized by Britain or France. The European countries colonized the Africa countries because they wanted natural resources/ raw materials. They wanted to expand European trade routes, spread Christianity, and expand their territory. The Berlin Conference was series of meetings to decide on how to divide Africa's countries. The only two countries that were independent were Ethiopia and Liberia. After all the meetings were complete and done, Africa was at least 90% European colonized.
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Apartheid

1912:

The African National Congress(ANC) was founded. This was a group that protested how the black South Africans were being treated poorly.

1948:

This was when Apartheid started. Apartheid means 'separateness' in Afrikaans. Apartheid was a system of segregation. People with different races had to use different services and buildings. They had separate schools, hospitals, beaches, libraries, water fountains and much more.

1949:

Apartheid dominated when the National Party came to power.

1950's and 1960's:

ANC received support from many nations and groups outside of South Africa. They received support because people around the world viewed Apartheid as unjust an racist.

1961:

Nelson Mandela became leader of ANC's armed wing. He was an anti-apartheid activist. He protested for many years non-violent against Apartheid.

1962:

Nelson Mandela was arrested. Mandela was arrested because, he was protesting against the “rules”. He was also leader of the non-violent protest. He was protesting against Apartheid and he wanted to put an end to it.

1964:

Nelson Mandela was put into court. In court he said, “ During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to this struggle of the African people. I have fought againist white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.

1973:

United Nations defended Apartheid as a crime against humanity. This means that the United Nations referred the Apartheid as a large scale of violence.

1990:

F. W. de Klerk released Nelson Mandela from prison.

1994:

Nelson Mandela was the first democratically elected president for South Africa 4 years after he was released from prison.

21st Century Issues

There were many problems in Africa after they got their independence. By 1980 most of Africa was free from Europe having control over it. Some problems occurring were, Genocide, HIV, AIDS, Malaria, famine, refugees, epidemic diseases, and poverty. Ghana was the first African nation to achieve independence from the United Kingdom. Ghana used to be called Gold Coast but they changed it to Ghana. Kenya got its independence in 1963. Kenya had the president Jomo Kenyatta; whoever disagreed with him he opposed. When he died they got another president who was Daniel arap Moi. In 2007, Kenya went into a violent protest when the president won the re-election in an election suspected of fraud. Nigeria won its independence in 1960 from Great Britain. A major issue facing Africa today is famine. Famine is when large areas are going with out food for a long time or they are dealing with droughts that are causing the mass starvation. The population of Africa is constantly growing and growing and that is leaving many countries not able to give food to all of their citizens. The common places for starvation is in, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan.

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Independence

  1. When did Kenya gain its independence?

Kenya got their independence in 1963 but has faced many hardships.

  1. Who became president in 1963 in Kenya?

    Jomo Kenyatta. He opposed anyone who disagreed with him.

  2. What president(s) opposed anyone who disagreed with them in Kenya?

    Daniel arap Moi and Jomo Kenyatta

  3. When did Nigeria gain independence and from who?

    They gained independence in 1960 from Great Britain.

  4. True or false: The main conflicts are between northerners who were Islamic and southerners who are not Islamic.

    True

  5. What happened in Nigeria in 1966?

    The military took over and ruled until 1993. They remained under military control until 1999.

  6. Who was the man who was imprisoned for 27 years due to his involvement in the anti-apartheid movement?

    Nelson Mandela

  7. What Country did Nelson Mandela protest in?

    South Africa

  8. True or false: Nelson Mandela was the second black president in South Africa.

    False, he was the first ever black president in South Africa.

  9. What is Pan-Africanism?

    It is the idea that there is a global African community made of Native Americans and the descendants of African slaves and migrants across the world.

  10. When did the Pan-African movement begin?

    It began in the late 1800's to the early 1900's. It was a way to make sure that there were equal rights, self government, independence and unity for African people.

  11. What did the movement lead to the founding of?

    It led to the founding of the African Union which was a way to unite Africans to improve conditions across the continent. The goals of the Union was to have economic growth, end poverty and starvation, advance the woman's rights and improve education, and lastly to end the African wars.

  12. What is Nationalism?

    Nationalism is a strong pride in ones country. He/she loves their country!

  13. How did Pan-Africanism and Nationalism lead to independence?

    They both led to independence because they were both movements that were good. They helped lead to independence because they were movements that helped something, the pan-Africanism movement was one that mad the Natives and their descendants be able to have community’s around the world where ever. And the Nationalism was when someone has a lot of pride in their country and they support the country and they want to help their country. Both of these things helped with the countries gaining independence because they both helped out. They both help their countries.