Teaching Reading Effectively

Various Approaches to Reading Instruction

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"To Become Fluent Readers and Writers Students NEED to Read and Write Every Day"

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What is the "Whole Language" Approach to Teaching Reading?

According to Dr. Monica Bomengen; In the simplest terms, the “whole language approach” is a method of teaching children to read by recognizing words as whole pieces of language. Proponents of the whole language philosophy believe that language should not be broken down into letters and combinations of letters and “decoded.” Instead, they believe that language is a complete system of making meaning, with words functioning in relation to each other in context.

What is the "Phonics-Based" Approach to Teaching Reading?

According to Dr. Monica Bomengen; Phonics-based reading instruction is a methodology for teaching young children to read and spell words. The teacher introduces a series of spelling rules and teaches the child to apply phonetics (how the letter combinations sound out loud) to decode words based on their spellings. Phonics attempts to break written language down into small and simple components.

What is the "Best Approach"?

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How do Children Develop As Readers?

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What is Phonemic Awareness?

Phonemic Awareness is children's basic understanding that speech is composed of a series of individual sounds, and it provides the foundation for phonics and spelling (Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2001).

What strategies are effective for teaching phonemic awareness?

To become phonemically aware students must manipulate spoken language in the following way:

  • Identifying Sounds-children identify a word that begins or ends with a particular sound. For example: when shown a bag, a heart, and a ball, they identify bag as the word that ends with /g/.
  • Categorizing Sounds in Words-children recognize the "odd" word in a set of three words; for example, when the teacher says bag, bat, and pan, they recognize that pan does not belong.
  • Substituting Sounds- children remove a sound from a word and substitute a different sound. The substitution can be at the beginning, changing hug to rug, for example. They can change the middle sound, making pan from pin, or substitute the ending sound changing rug to run.
  • Blending Sounds-children blend two, three, or four individual sounds to form a word; the teacher says /s/ /u/ /n/, for example, and the children repeat the sounds, blending them to form the word sun.
  • Segmenting Sounds-children break a word into its beginning, middle, and ending sounds. For example, children segment the word duck into /d/ /u/ /k/.

What is Phonics?

Phonics is the set of relationships between phonology (the sounds in speech), and orthography (the spelling system). Emphasis is placed on spelling patterns, not individual letters, because there is not a one-to-one correspondence between phonemes and graphemes in English.

What Strategies are effective for teaching phonics?

Phonics is best taught through a combination of explicit instruction and authentic application activities.

  • Program should be systematic
  • Begin with consonants and then introduce short vowels; this allows students to be able to read and spell CVC-pattern words, such as pin and sun
  • Continue on with consonant blends and digraphs and long vowels; this allows students to be able to read CVCe-pattern words and CVVC-pattern words
  • Finally; children will learn the less common vowel digraphs and diphthongs
  • Children also learn strategies to utilize when identifying unfamiliar words-the three most useful strategies are: sounding out words, decoding by analogy, and applying phonics rules

What is the difference between phonemic awareness and phonics?

Difference between Phonemic Awareness and Phonics

Why Spelling Instruction?

Chapter 5 of the text stated; "Two of the most important ways that children learn to spell are through daily reading and writing activities. If children are to become good spellers, they need to learn about the English orthographic system and move through the stages of spelling development.


A complete spelling program must include these components:

  • Teaching spelling strategies
  • Matching instruction to children's level of spelling development
  • Providing daily reading and writing opportunities
  • Teaching children to spell high-frequency words

What Strategies are effective for teaching spelling?

  • Minilessons
  • Word Walls
  • Word-Study Activities (hands-on activities)
  • Making Words
  • Word Ladders
  • Word Sorts
  • Interactive Writing
  • Proofreading
  • Dictionary Use

What strategies are effective for teaching English Language Learners?

Teachers scaffold English Language Learners oral language acquisition and literacy development in the following ways:

  • Explicit Instruction
  • Small-Group Work
  • Reading Aloud to Children
  • Build Background Knowledge
  • Provide Authentic Literacy Activities
  • Oral Language (opportunities to practice speaking English with partners and in small groups)

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Chapter 6 of the text stated; "The more reading children do, the sooner they'll reach writing fluency; and the more writing children do, the sooner they'll achieve reading fluency."

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Source

Tompkins, Gail (2014). Literacy in the early grades: a successful start for PK-4 readers and writers. 4th edition. Pearson Education.

How do I get my students excited about reading?

Share this youtube video with your students or better yet make your own video to motivate and get them excited about reading. I hope you enjoy this fun video titled Read It Maybe?
Read it Maybe?