Chemistry of Life
By Dominique Marshall
The Many Sides of Water
Adhesion is when water molecules are attracted to other substances. For example, when you see a dewdrop on a leaf after it rained, this is an example of adhesion. The water molecules, which in this case is the dewdrops, is clinging to the other substance, which is the leaf.
Cohesion is when water molecules attract to other water molecules. For example, did you ever wonder how a water drop keeps its shape? This is because of cohesion. Because of cohesion, the water molecules attract to other water molecules, which allows all the molecules to form into a water drop.
Polarity is when a molecule has both a positively and negatively charged end. Water is considered a polar molecule because of the difference between hydrogen and oxygen. This is also called electronegativity. Electronegativity is the measure of attraction of an atom for the electrons in a chemical bond.
Heat storage is when a device or medium absorbs collected solar heat and stores it for periods of inclement or cold weather. This can also be applied to water. When water is heated, it takes a long time to cool down due to the heat that it contains
pH is the measure of how acidic or basic a substance is. Water isn't found to be acidic or basic, just in the middle. Pure water is found to have a pH very close to 7, which makes it not very acidic or basic.
The Facts About Macromolcules
What is a macromolecule? A macromolecule is a molecule containing a very large number of atoms. Some examples of macromolcules are proteins, nucleic acids and carbohydrates.
A carbohydrate is an organic compound that is made up of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. Carbs are a key source of energy for the body and is found in most foods. Another job that carbs preform for the body is a defense against invading viruses and bacteria. the four types of carbs are monosaccarides, disaccarides, oligosaccarides, and polysaccarides.
Proteins are complex molecules that help your body perform a variety of biological functions. There are five different types of proteins. Those five types are: structural, storage, hormonal, enzyme and immunoglobin proteins.
Nucleic acids are the molecules that code the genetic info of organisms. The two nucleic acids that are used for repair, reproduction and in protein synthesis are called deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA) and ribonucleic acid(RNA). Both of these nucleic acids are polymers made up of nucleotides.
Lipids, Lipids and More Lipids
Lipids are large, diverse molecules linked by the property of being insoluble in water. Lipids are one of the four main organic molecules that are necessary for life's functioning. These macromolecules are made up of fatty acids and glycerol. Some types of lipids are: fats, phospholipids and steroids. What these types of lipids do is: help function in energy storage, help form cell membranes and serve several functions in the body.
The Life of Enzymes
Enzymes are made up of the macromolecule protein. Enzymes help stimulate chemical reactions. When activating energy, if a reactant is bound to an enzyme, the bonds can be strained(or stretcched). This makes it easier to achieve the transition state. Two things that can affect an enzyme is temperature and pH. If someone increases the temperature on an enzyme, it will increase the number of collisions and the rate of a reaction will also increase. changes in pH can affect the shape of an enzyme and its substrate. It can also charge properties of the substrate so it cannot bond or undergo catylsis.