Website assignment

English 403

What many think about psychology

Psychology is about helping those who have mental health problems. Psychologists say that all our problems come from our childhood. Psychologists interpret the dreams of people. Psychology is more like art than science. Psychologists use psychoanalysis while analyzing people.


We have known psychology as a discipline for about 150 years, it wasn't until late 19th century when psychologists started dealing with mental illness. Clinical psychology is the branch of psychology that is about mental health. Clinical psychologists are mostly all Freudians, and nowadays Freud doesn't have many followers within psychology in HÍ, where his theories are not based on scientific data, but on his personal experience and interpretation.


There are more branches in psychology, for example we can name biological psychology, where the brain and nervous system is studied, developmental psychology, which is about how people develop in their life periods, social psychology, which is about the human as a social being, cognitive psychology, which studies the mind and mental function, and behavioral analysis, which investigate the impact of reinforcement and punishment of acts of people.


All the branches of psychology have that in common that they discuss the mind, brain and behavior. The human behavior is the most common study material, but some psychologists study the behavior of animals, using brain scanning, measuring the activity of individual neurons or do a simulation program of mental processes. Psychology is related to sectors such as grammar, computer science, medicine, philosophy, sociology, biology and physiology, and tries like most of these sectors to approach their tasks with scientific studies. Psychology has little to do with sectors such as mysticism, astrology, healing, herbal remedies, dream analysis etc.


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Það sem margir halda um sálfræði.

Sálfræði snýst um að hjálpa fólki sem á við geðræn vandamál að stríða. Sálfræðingar telja að skýra megi öll vandamál fólks með tilvísun í æsku viðkomandi, á la Freud. Sálfræðingar túlka drauma fólks. Sálfræði er frekar list en vísindagrein. Sálfræðingar sálgreina fólk.


Hver er raunin?
Sálfræði sem fræðigrein hefur verið til í um 150 ár, en það var ekki fyrr en seint á 20. öld sem sálfræðingar fóru að fást við geðraskanir. Sú undirgrein sálfræði sem fjallar um geðræn vandamál kallast klínísk sálfræði. Klínískir sálfræðingar eru ekki nærri því allir Freudistar, og nú til dags á Freud ekki miklu fylgi að fagna innan sálfræði við HÍ, þar sem kenningar hans byggja ekki á vísindalegum gögnum, heldur fremur hans persónulegu reynslu og túlkun.

Til eru mun fleiri undirgreinar, og þar má nefna greinar eins og lífeðlislega sálfræði, þar sem heili og taugakerfi eru rannsökuð, þroskasálfræði, sem fjallar um hvernig fólk breytist á lífsskeiðinu, félagsleg sálfræði sem fjallar um manninn sem félagsveru, hugfræði, sem fæst við hugarferli, og atferlismótun, sem rannsakar áhrif styrkingar og refsingar á atferli fólks.


Þessar greinar eiga það sameiginlegt að fjalla um hug, heila eða hátterni. Hegðun fólks er algengasta rannsóknarefnið, en sumir sálfræðingar rannsaka hegðun dýra, notast við heilaskimun, mæla virkni einstakra taugafrumna eða gera hermiforrit af hugarferlum. Sálfræði er skyld greinum eins og málfræði, tölvunarfræði, læknisfræði, heimspeki, félagsfræði, líffræði og lífeðlisfræði, og reynir eins og flestar þessara greina að nálgast viðfangsefni sitt með VÍSINDALEGRI TILRAUNAAÐFERÐ. Sálfræði á því lítið skylt við greinar eins og dulspeki, stjörnuspeki, heilun, grasalækningar, draumaráðningar o.s.frv.


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I chose this text because I didn’t find much of Icelandic texts, and this one I found quite interesting because it’s about people that think they know everything about psychology, but they really don’t know anything.

Sálfræði er fræðigrein um vísindalegar rannsóknir á huga og hegðun. Sálfræði er margþætt fræðigrein og inniheldur mörg fræðisvið eins og mannlega þróun, íþróttir, heilsu, klíníska og félagslega hegðun og atferlismótun.


Sálfræði er tiltölulega ný fræðigrein, flestar framfarir sálfræðinnar hafa gerst á undanförnum 150 árum. Upphaf sálfræðinnar má rekja alveg aftur til 400-500 f. Kr í Grikklandi. Áherslan þá var á heimspeki, miklir hugsuðir eins og Sókrates höfðu áhrif á Platon, sem síðar hafði áhrif á Aristóteles.


Heimspekingar áttu það til að ræða um efni sem er núna rannsakað í nútíma sálfræði, má taka sem dæmi minnið, frjálsan vilja og aðlöðun.


Wundt er mikilvæg persóna í sögu sálfræðinnar, hann opnaði fyrstu rannsókarstofu tileinkaða sálfræði árið 1879, opnun þessarar rannsókarstofu er yfirleitt talið upphaf nútíma sálfræði. Wundt er mikilvægur vegna þess að hann aðskildi sálfræði frá heimspeki með því að greina starfsemi hugans með fleiri markmiðum og stöðluðum verklagsreglum.


Þar sem sálfræðin er vísindagrein þá reynir hún að rannsaka orsakir hegðunar með kerfisbundnum og hlutlægum verkferlum með athugun, mælingum og greiningum sem eru rökstuddar með kenningum, alhæfingum, skýringum og spám.


Með víðtæku umfangi fræðigreinarinnar, rannsakar sálfræðin gríðarlega vítt svið af hlutum: nám og minni, skilning og skynjun, hvatningu og tilfinningu, hugsun og tungumál, persónuleika og félagslega hegðun, upplýsingaöflun, þroska barna, andlega kvilla og svo margt fleira.


Ennfremur rannsaka sálfræðingar þessi mál frá ýmsum og fjölbreyttum sálfræðilegum sjónarhornum.


Í grunninn er hvert sálfræðilegt sjónarhorn sameiginlegar skoðanir á því hvernig fólk er, hvað er verðugt rannsóknaefni og hvernig það er rannsakað. Sumir gera nákvæmar líffræðilegar rannsóknir á heilanum, aðrir kanna hvernig við vinnum úr upplýsingum; aðrir greina hlutverk þróunar og enn aðrir rannsaka áhrif menningar og samfélags.


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Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior. Psychology is a multifaceted discipline and includes many sub-fields of study such areas as human development, sports, health, clinical, social behavior and cognitive processes.


Psychology is really a very new science, with most advances happening over the past 150 years or so. However, its origins can be traced back to ancient Greece, 400 – 500 years BC. The emphasis was a philosophical one, with great thinkers such as Socrates influencing Plato, who in turn influenced Aristotle.


Philosophers used to discuss many topics now studied by modern psychology, such as memory, free will, attraction etc.


[…] Wundt is an important figure in the history of psychology as he opened the first laboratory dedicated to psychology in 1879, and its opening is usually thought of as the beginning of modern psychology. Wundt was important because he separated psychology from philosophy by analyzing the workings of the mind using more objective and standardized procedures.


Because psychology is a science it attempts to investigate the causes of behavior using systematic and objective procedures for observation, measurement and analysis, backed-up by theoretical interpretations, generalizations, explanations and predictions.

With its broad scope, psychology investigates an enormous range of phenomena: learning and memory, sensation and perception, motivation and emotion, thinking and language, personality and social behavior, intelligence, child development, mental illness, and much more.


Furthermore, psychologists examine these topics from a variety of complementary psychological perspectives.


Each psychological perspective is underpinned by a shared set of assumptions of what people are like, what is important to study and how to study it. Some conduct detailed biological studies of the brain, others explore how we process information; others analyze the role of evolution, and still others study the influence of culture and society


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I chose this text because it's one of the shortest texts I found, so I didn’t have to cut a lot of important paragraphs from it. It is also just a basic introduction about psychology, which is important to know about.

Interview with a psychologist

I took a very interesting interview with a psychologist in Reykjavík. I sent him an email asking if he had spare time to answer some questions for this assignment. He was very kind to take the time and answer my questions :)


I chose random psycholists on ja.is who had their emails attached to their profiles. I chose four psycholists, two women and two men. He was the only one who answered and I'm very happy that he could take the time to help me with this assignment.




Már Viðar Másson is a 65 year old psychologist in Reykjavík. Már started studying to be a teacher at Kennaraskóla Íslands, he graduated in 1971 from K.Í. The principal, and a teacher, at K.Í., dr. Broddi Jóhannesson a psychologist and a philosopher, influenced Már to become a psychologist. Már started studying psychology at H.Í. and then he went to Uppsala Universitet to finish studying, he came back to Iceland in 1985 and started working as a psychologist. You can finish studying psychology here in Iceland, but you have to have very high grades so many go to other countries to finish studying. It takes about 5 years to study psychology, but most students need longer time. It surprises many people how hard it can be to study psychology, it surprises almost everyone how much you have to study methodology and statistics, a lot of people find these courses very hard. Már finds that a person won’t become a good psychologist until the psychologist is in 50s, when the psychologist has both studied psychology and worked as a psychologist for many years. That is when the psychologist has had a lot of experience as a psychologist and you are always learning something new. Patients can’t be treated the same, everyone is different, therefor, everyone needs a different treatment. Psychologist must know many methods and find out what method is best for each patient.


Már is a clinical psychologist, he has worked with kids, teenagers and adults, therefor, is his experience with people at different age is very good. He is very good at analyzing people’s personality, and Már finds that personality psychology is strongest branch of psychology. Már has worked at different places, for example at elementary schools in Reykjanes and Reykjavík and for himself. Már rents a room in a big house on Laugavegur in Reykjavík. He meets his first patient at 10 in the morning and is finishes around 17:30 in the afternoon. Már finds that the young members of the Icelandic society should participate in life of unabated. Continue to build up the Icelandic society, there's so much that is unfinished. They should not be against, but with.

Interesting videos from ted.com

Why we laugh

The video I chose is about why we laugh and what is happening when we are laughing. It is very interesting and it made me laugh. It was one of the first videos I saw when I opened ted.com and I got curious about why we laugh and what is that makes us laugh. The main idea of this talk is to explain to us why we laugh and how we laugh differently. We all have different laughs, some of us have a deep laughter while others have high pitch laughter and some of us even make weird voices while laughing, and we are not the only species that laugh. Why we laugh is another questing, we mostly find laughter where there is interaction, mostly social interactions. We laugh to show people we are listening to them, like them or are having a good time with someone. Laughter is also very contagious, just like smiling. People get better at noticing the different between real and pose laughter, and you don’t really get the hold of it until you’re in your late 30s. We deal with situations using laughter, for example humans often use laughter while stressed, because it makes us feel better, makes us feel more confident and we feel less stressed. Laughter can get us from painful embarrassing situation to a funny situation.

10 myths about psychology, debunked

I chose this video because it's about about revealing psychology myths, and it's interesting. These 10 myths are well known to everyone, at least most of the myths, and are all great theories from great minds. I found this video very fascinating because of how Ben tries his best to convince everyone that the myths are false. He has gathered so much information from multiple resources and that must have taken a lot of time. He must have put a lot of effort to make this talk.

The psychology of your future self

I looked for a videos related to psychology, the title of this video didn't interest me that much but the quote in the description from Dan Gilbert interested me and I got curious about what he could be talking about. It is a very interesting video. Gilbert talks about how change affects us so much more than we actually think. People often predict less change then actually happens in real life. People underestimate changes in life. For example if you would predict the change of your favorite hobby or musician or even your personality for the next 10 years and then compare that to the change that has been the past 10 years, you would see that you predict much less change for the next 10 years than it has been the past 10 years.

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Alexandra Berndsen