War of 1812

Second War Between England and America

The War of 1812 helped make the United States a world power and also sparked our national pride.

What Caused This War?

l. Impressment:

Britain and France went to war once again in 1803. This caused men to go into the navy by force or without notice. Neither France or Britain excepted Americas offer of neutrality. After Britain denied America's declare, Britain continued to capture ships and kidnap sailors.


ll. Economic Problems:

The Embargo Act of 1807 was put in place by Thomas Jefferson to avoid war. The Embargo Act was an indication that Americans would cut off all trade with Europe. Jeffersons plan did avoid war and kept American ships safe. Although the American economy experience hardships without European trade.


lll. War Hawks Elected:

War Hawks were the twelve congress that wanted war against Britain. In 1810, new "War Hawk" congressmen were elected from the South and West. The West and South both were angry. The South was angered because Britain has damaged their trade with Europe. While, the West was angry at Britain and blamed them for Indian attacks on the frontier.


lV. Fighting in the West:

The Treaty of Greenville was put in place to create peace between the United States and the Tribes of Native Americans by making territory for each. Americans violated the Treaty and moved into Indian land. British troops were still in western forts and armed Indians attack Americans for invading.

See the Cause

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Events

The Chesapeake Affair

In 1807, in Norfolk, Virginia, a British warship tried to capture the Chesapeake, an American warship. The Chesapeake resisted and the British ship fired upon it and kidnapped sailors. Many Americans were furious and called for war.

Fighting around the Chesapeake Bay

The British navy moved to the Chesapeake Bay and marched soldiers to Washington D.C. Members of the federal government, including James Madison, fled as British attacked. The Capitol building and White House were both burned.

Battle of Baltimore

The British navy tried to attack Baltimore but were stopped at Fort McHenry. Francis Scott Key was inspired by the battle to write what became the "Star-Spangled Banner" which is now our national anthem. British ships retreated and the Chesapeake area was saved.

Fighting of New Orleans

Britain wanted to capture New Orleans and the Mississippi to cut off trade. The Battle of New Orleans was led by Andrew Jackson and the American troops beat the British. This battle made Jackson a national hero and inspired nationalism throughout the country.

Effects

Economy:

Factories grew during the war and America depended less on British manufacturing.


Politics:

William Henry Harrison and Andrew Jackson became national heros.

The federalist looked unpatriotic after the Hartford Convention and "died out."


Foreign Relations:

America gained International respect and became a world power.


Nationalism:

"Era of Good Feeling" occurred because America entered a period of nationalism.

Americans turned form Europe and look to expand into the west.

America created a unique culture distinct from Europe.