acids and bases

Matt Foltz

acid and bases model explained

Lewis model:The two theories can be reconciled by recognising that the proton, H+, is a unique and versatile Lewis acid that is the agent of Brønsted acidity.



strong and week acid/bases

Acids and bases may be very strong or weak. Strength refers to how well an acid or base separates into ions in water. In a strong acid, most of the molecules break up into solutions. In a weak acid, fewer molecules break up into ions.
A strong acid is an acid which ionizes almost completely when dissolved in water to produce a high concentration of hydrogen ions.

strong acids: Sulphuric acid, Hydrochloric acid ,Hybrobromic acid

strong bases: Lithium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide

weak acids: water Trichloroacetic Hydrofluoric

weak bases: water pyridine ammonia

acids and bases physical properties

Acids and bases are two types of compounds found in everyday life. Both occur naturally as well as in man-made compounds. They are opposites in terms of their uses and their physical and chemical properties, and, when combined, effectively neutralize each another. Many of the weaker acids and bases are in things we use every day, even foods, but in the case of stronger compounds, their uses tend to be industrial only.

how to tell if acid or base

Typically, the definition of an acid and a base can help determine its acid-base properties, just by knowing the chemical's structure (if there are H ions present, it is an acid; if there are OH ions present, it is likely to be a base). Simple experiments can be carried out to discover or confirm which one a substance is.

reactions

A chemical reaction by definition forms new chemicals (called the products) from the initial chemicals (called the reactants). It should make sense that the identity of the products formed depends on what reactants we start with.
Adding an acid to a base is an example of a chemical reaction, so we should expect to see new products. Although there is a pattern to this type of reaction, ultimately the products formed depend on what acid and what base are used.

measurements

for weak acids e.g. lemon juice you would use PH strips dip it in the acid then the strip will change to a certain color, you then hold this up against a color chart for the best match. However if your talking about stronger acids I believe you pass an electrical current through it a low PH which equates to it being acidic would give a positive conductivity a high PH which equates to it being alkaline would give a negative conductivity.

ph. range for acid 1 to7 and 8 to 14 for bases

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