Emma Smith

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Physical Geography

Kartoum, the capital, and Omurman, the largest city, lie close together on the Nile River. Most Sudanese live near the Nile or one of its branches.

In 2011, the southern third of Sudan separated to form the independent Republic South Sudan.

The country is divided into 17 states.


Sudan's President (Omar al-Bashir), is the Head of State, Head of Government, and Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces. The National Legislature consists of a council of states and National Assembly.


Sudan is a nation of plains and desert. Northeastern Sudan boarders the Red Sea. The White Nile and Blue Nile meet at Khartoum to form the main river.

North Khartoum, Sudan is mostly desert. Rainfall exceeds 4 inchs a year. Average summer high temperatures reach about 110F (43c). Average winter drops to about 60F (10c).

People live along the banks of the Nile and the Red Sea but much of the north is uninhabited.


Sudan is a poor country. It has a high unemployment rate and many of its people live in poverty. Sudan's economy is largely based on agriculture.

Oil is a major source of government revenue since 1999.

Sudan has lost many resources due to the split of southern Sudan, most of the oil is in South Sudan but is exported via pipelines through Sudan to the Red Sea

Ethnic Groups

Arabs make up Sudan's largest ethnic group. Some are descend from Arab immigrants. Other ethnic groups include Nubians, Beja, Fur, and descendants of West African immigrants


Most of Sudan's people are Sunni Muslims. Some people practice Christianity or traditional African trades

Current Events

Jun 14 2015- Sudan's dictator leaves South Africa after genocide arrest row: Omar al-Bashir has left South Africa dodging an order for him to stay until court decides weather to order his arrest for genocide

1998- Biden discuss war on terrorism and hunt for Osama Bin Laden: In this 1998 interview senator Joe Biden talks about the U.S strikes on Sudan and Afghanistan after African Embassy bombings. Biden mentions the importance of finding Osama Bin Laden.

May 22 2014- Appeal filed for Sudan women sentenced to death for her Christianity: A Sudanese lawyer filed an appeal for a pregnant women sentenced to death for refusing renounce her Christianity. The filing asks the appeal court to reverse the verdict by the lower court and free Meriam Yehya Ibrahim, 27.

Future Problems

1. Boarders-Even though Sudan appears resigned to the South’s secession, the two countries will still have to agree on the precise border that divides them.

2. Oil- Most of Sudan's oil is in the southern part, which recently in 2011, divided into it own country (South Sudan)

3. Development- Sudan is one of the least developed places on earth, 70 percent of its people have no access to any form of healthcare, one in five women die in childbirth and one in five children fail to make it to their fifth birthday.

Wildlife of Sudan

The wildlife of Sudan is composed of 287 species of mammals and 207 species of birds.Most parts of Sudan are in a desert, and baboons can live in different kinds of climates, in the desert as well as in the grassland. Other types of animals such as antelopes, barbary sheep, are also found in the Sudan desert, but Sudan has a range of climates where different types of animals can live and survive. The four species are only found in the Sudan desert where certain types of animals can not survive. The four species are endangered with just very few specimens still left in the wild. n addition, Sudan's forest reserves provided habitat for bongo also an antelope, giant forest hogs, red river hogs, forest elephants, chimpanzees, as well as forest monkeys. burton gerbril, freshwater fish, batterfly leptomyrina sudanica, cat snake telescopus gezirae, etc. are only found in Sudan and nowhere else in the world., which makes them special and unique.