History of Ice Cream
According the International Dairy Foods Association, "Ice cream's origins are known to reach as far back as the second century B.C., although no specific dates of origin nor inventor has been credited with its discovery'' (1). So where did this frozen dessert come from? It is known that wines and fruit juices were mixed with ice in ancient Rome (Marshall et al 2). Eventually, ice cream transformed into a closer version of what we know as ice cream. The first record of ice cream in America appeared in a letter written by a guest of a Maryland governor in 1777 (IDFA 1). That same year ice cream was first advertised in the "New York Gazette" (Marshal et al 3). This was enough for ice cream to gain popularity, and the life of ice cream began in the United States.
What is Ice Cream?
If you think you can call any frozen dessert "ice cream," think again. The U.S. Department of Agriculture has strict guidelines as to what may hold this title. "To bear the 'Meets USDA Ingredient Standard for Ice Cream' stamp, it has to contain at least 10 percent milk fat, and a minimum of six percent non-fat milk solids. A gallon has to weigh at least 4.5 pounds" (Grabianowski 1). Ice cream is made from a mixture consisting of air, water, milkfat, and other natural ingredients (Marshall et al 11). In scientific terms, ice cream is a colloid, which is a mixture that occurs when one substance is suspended throughout another substance (Grabianowski 1).
Making Ice Cream
The first step to making ice cream is mixing together ingredients such as milk, cream, and sugar and other sweeteners (Clemmings et al 1). Next, the mixture is heated to a high temperature and is cooled to the point of freezing, often being stirred to help it cool thoroughly (Miller 6). How is ice cream flavored? Ice cream can be flavored using flavor extracts and many different fruit juices by mixing it in with the mixture before freezing (Smiley 10). However, ice cream flavoring is not limited to extracts and fruit juices. As Ed Grabianowski states, "There are thousands of varieties of ice cream, so just about any combination of flavors is possible" (2).
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Clemmings, John F. "Method of Making Ice Cream." Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.
Grabianowski, Ed. "How Ice Cream Works." HowStuffWorks. N.p., 19 Aug. 2005. Web. 24 Oct. 2013.
"Ice Cream Treats." CHOW. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Nov. 2013
"International Dairy Foods Association." The History of Ice Cream. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2013.
Marshall, Robert T., H. Douglas Goff, and Richard W. Hartel. "Google Books." Google Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2013.
Miller, John D. "Ice Cream. Practical Recipes for Making Ice Cream." Ice Cream. Practical Recipes for Making Ice Cream. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.
Smiley, Rev. G. M. "Ten Choice Receipts for Making Ice Cream for the Use of Families, Churches, Societies, Hotels, Eating Houses, &c., with Full Directions .." Ten Choice Receipts for Making Ice Cream for the Use of Families, Churches, Societies, Hotels, Eating Houses, &c., with Full Directions .. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.
""Taste Test" of Ice Cream Made from Salt Preserved Cream. Method for Preserving Cream. 6. The Preserved Cream Makes Tasty Ice Cream as This Picture of Miss. Mary E. Sarber, Left, and Miss Luella Dever, Department of Agriculture Employees, Indicates, 1-26-39." Library of Congress. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.