By: Ella Porter
Daniel Levinson, a psychologist, determined the adult male and female life development stages after conducting intensive studies with his colleagues from Yale. He found that there were three basic eras of adulthood, and they were early, middle, and late. The adult male developmental stages are the Early Adult Transition, Entering the Adult World, the Age 30 Transition (the end of the Novice phase), the Settling Down Period, the Midlife Transition, Entering Middle Adulthood, the Age 50 Transition, the Culmination of Middle Adulthood, and the Late Adulthood Transition. The female stages are broken up into phases instead. There are fewer phases than stages in adult male development, but the phases are broader. These phases are Leaving the Family, Entering the Adult World, and Entering the Adult World Again. The differences in the life patterns of males and females can be attributed to their differing primary focuses (for males, it's their career and for females it's their relationships) and to the two genders just being different in general.
The labor force has changed in many ways throughout the years. The composition has changed as more women, people of different ethnicities, and people with higher levels of education have entered the workforce. The nature of work has changed with most people now working professional, office, service, and sales jobs as opposed to farming or manufacturing, which had been the most popular jobs before. Today, even if people are satisfied with their jobs, they continue to move on to new jobs, and even careers. According to statistics, the average person will change careers five to six times in their lifetime.
Late adulthood is separated into three groups, the young old, middle old, and old old. The young old tend to focus more on retirement, while the middle and old old tend to focus on physical and mental decline and death. People adjust to retirement in many different ways. In general, if you were happy and satisfied with your job before retirement, you're more likely to be happy and satisfied with retirement. If you were not happy or satisfied with your job, you're more likely to not be happy or satisfied in retirement. People in their later years often begin to decline physically, however studies have shown that they might not decline mentally, or at least not to the extent that had been previously thought. Most elderly people are more threatened by dependence than they are death.