Low Vision and Blindness
By: Ikea Bolawa
Blindness is when a person has a visual acuity of 20/200 or worse in the better eye with corrective lenses.
Glaucoma : The intact vision remains in the center while progressively the peripheries start decreasing
Macular Degeneration: is caused by deterioration of the retina. It is the lost of vision in the center portion of eye.
Cataract: causes cloudiness throughout the whole vision of the eye
Diabetic Retinopathy: Diabetes leads to damage of the smaller arteries and blood vessels at the back of the eyes over the retina.
Accomadations in Classroom
Screen Enlargements: Use oversize monitors and screen enlargement softwares
Readers and Scanners: Speech output versions of MAGic and ZoomText. Kurweil can scan text and provide speech outputs.
Braille Hardware: Braille can be read by using hand. Software can convert electronic text to Braille.
Parts of an Eye
transparent bulge in the front of the eye, curved, begins refraction
- Pupil: space or black hole through which the light passes; can be elliptical in nature;
- Lens: transparent and elastic, continues refraction and focusing onto the retina;
- Retina: third part of the eye wall; contains rods and cones; photo receptor cells; light rays are focused on it;
- Optic Nerve: carries the nerve impulse to the thalamus and then to the optical lobe of the cerebrum, where vision is locate
- About 1.3 million people in the U.S. are legally blind.
- Each year 75,000 more people in the United States will become blind or visually impaired.
- It is estimated that as many as 10 million Americans are blind or visually impaired.
- There are 5.5 million seniors in the United States who are either blind or visually impaired.
- Studies show that over the next 30 years aging baby boomers will double the current number of blind or visually impaired Americans.
- A Gallup poll shows that blindness is the third most feared physical condition in our nation, surpassed only by fears of cancer and AIDS.
- Just 1% of the blind population is born without sight. The vast majority of blind people lose their vision later in life because of macular degeneration, glaucoma, and diabetes
- Macular degeneration affects about 13 million Americans.
- Among working-age blind adults 70% remain unemployed, despite the federal and state annual rehabilitation expenditures of over $250 million.
- There are 93,600 blind or visually impaired school age children in the U.S.
Stay Connected with Parent Blogs
- Family Connect: Family or parents of children with visual impairments http://www.familyconnect.org/parentsitehome.aspx
- Smith, D. D., & Tyler, N. C. (2014). Introduction to Contemporary Special Education. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA: Pearson Education.
- Fenell, Z. (2013). Defining Visual Impairment for Parents and Special Education Teachers. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
- NIH NEI. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: 2010 U.S. Age Specific Prevalence Rates for Age-Related Macular Degeneration by Age and Ethnicity. Dept. of Health and Human Services. 2010.
Mobility International USA. "A Simple Philosophy Turned A Blind Student's Dream Into Reality."