Native Americans


-Constructed dams, ditches, and canals to trap rain from tops of mesa and channel to gardens on canyon floor.

-House made of adobe and stone, were multi-storied, apartment-like structures lived along walls of cliffs or large plazas.

-heart of civilization in chaco canyon was Pueblo bonito where there was a massive complex of more than 1000 people.

-From pueblo bonito they built roads for treading networks.

-Craftsmen made turquoise jewelry, Woven baskets, pottery.

-Heavily influenced art and architecture of late groups such as Hopi and zuni.


-Lived in Ohio valley region around 700 BC.

-Grew squash, sunflowers, gourds, and barley.

-Produces exquisite copper jewelry and fine pottery.

-Elaborate burial mounds made up of log structures coved by piles of earth.


-Arrived in Ohio valley around 300 BC.

-Built mounds some were 40 feet high and 100 feet wide.

- Artifacts found suggest extensive TRADE network.

-Adena and Hopewell both referred to as "Mound Builders"


-Arrived in Mississippi valley by 800 AD

-Had plants that used for many food and when added maize and beans had an increase in population.

-Increase in population caused need for more land.

-More land resulted in numerous cities with up to 10,000 people- largest was Cahokia.

-In center of city of Cahokia's was a mound aprox 100 feet high base of more than 14 acres.

-Surrounding this massive mound were 120 smaller mounds.