DNA in cells

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Transcription stage 1

Cells read DNA in tiny portions (genes) to create a protein. To do this, the cell must first create copy of the genes code to send to the protein-building machinery. this process is called transcription.


This takes place in the nucleus.


This is the first step to building mRNA and proteins.

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Transcription Stage 2 and 3

This process is called transcription and messenger RNA


The exposed chemical bases of the unzipped DNA are used to make the copy. This copy is called messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA molecule is also created of a backbone and the same chemical bases as DNA. There is one exeption however. Instead of Thymine (T), mRNA uses Uracil(U). The chemical bases in mRNA from pairs in the same way as DNA.


mRNA is just a copy of DNA.


This is happening in the nucleus.

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Translation Stage 1 step one

mRNA is scanned in trios of three chemical bases. Each tortias of three exclaimes the cell which amino acid to assemble. In other words, each group of three is a ''code'' for a particular amino acid.


We are looking at mRNA and its group of three chemical bases, it was mRNA that has been copied from DNA.


It travels from the DNA it was copied from and travels to the protein building machinery.

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Translation Stage 2

Translation is the name of this process.


The mRNA copy of DNA is basically a recipe for creating a protein. Proteins are constructed from puency molecules called amino acids. When the mRNA copy its delivered to the protein-building machinery it is scanned and the apropriate amino acids are assembled. This process is called translation.


This is happening in the nucleus.


The circles represent an amino acid which are read in groups of three chemical bases.(Each group of three is a code for a particular colour af amino acid.)


AAA= dark yellow ACC= pink ACU=pink AUG=green(start) CAU= purple UAA=red(stop) UCU= dark yellow UUG= blue

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Translation Stage 2 Step 2

The completed structure represents each trio of chemical bases being pared with an amino acid based on the code.


The whole process is now complete.

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