Mr. Comma

By- Ishae S., Ava C., and Zoe S.
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Mr. Comma will teach you about commas.

Commas with Items in A Series

Use a comma after every item in a series except the last one. A series consists of three or more items.


The story of Daedalus and his Icarus teaches us about cleverness, stubbornness, and foolishness.
Each man used wax, feathers, and a harness to make a pair of wings.
Icarus and Daedalus put on their wings, ran along the beach, and flew to ward the open sea.

Commas with Items in A Series

Use commas between two or more adjectives of equal rank that modify the same noun.


Both father and son made a quick, daring escape.

How to check

Place and in between the two adjectives, if it still makes sense replace it with a comma.


Daedalus used large stiff feathers.
Daedalus used large and stiff feathers.
Daedalus used large, stiff feathers.
Do not use a comma between adjectives that together express a single idea.


Each par of wings had many light feathers.

Commas with Introductory Words and Phrases

Use a comma after an introductory word or phrase to separate it from the rest of the sentence.


Recklessly, Icarus flew too close to the sun.
According to the Greek myth, Icarus fell when his wings melted.

Commas with Interrupters

Use commas to set off words or phrases that interrupt, or break, the flow of thought in a sentence.


Daedalus, however, did fly to freedom.
This myth has been told, I am certain, by many authors.

Commas with Nouns of Direct Address

Use commas to set off nouns of direct address. A noun of direct address names the person or group being spoken to.


Devon, explain why Daedalus warned Icarus about the sun.
Don't forget, class, that Icarus didn't listen to his father.

Commas with Appositives

An appositive is a word or phrase that identifies or renames a noun or pronoun that comes right before it. Use commas when the appositive adds extra information; do not use commas when the appositive is needed to make the meaning clear.


Olivia E. Coolidge , an English author, wrote about Greek myths. (The phrase an English author adds extra information.)
An English author Olivia E. Coolidge wrote about Greek myths. ( The phrase Olivia E. Coolidge is needed information.)

Commas to Avoid Confusion

Use a comma whenever the reader might otherwise be confused.


Unclear: Soon after Icarus left Daedalus followed.
Clear: Soon after Icarus left, Daedalus followed.