Modern Era

Europe, the Middle East, and East Asia 1800-1914

Growth Spurt

From 1685-1853 an enormous population spurt occurred in both China and England yet while England's growth extendened into vast oversea empires which supplied a vast amount of disposable income that helped the Industrial Revolution and encouraged new ideas through entupanuership. In China the population spurt occurred but no Industrial Revolution occurred and there was not enough food for everyone.

"The Sick Man of Europe"

In 1750, the Ottoman Empire began it's slow decline due to the modernization of much of Europe and the vast influence of Christian rule that Europe spread. The Ottoman Empire was no longer superior or equal to the growing powers of Europe.

Chinese Reject Brittish Open Trade 1793

China had always seemed isolated and ports were not open to just any nation to come and trade in and when the Brittish requested an open trade for luxury goods China rejected them. This acted as a major precursor to the Opium Wars but eventuall by force China traded with England.

Napoleon Invades Egypt

White Man's Burden was predominantly British yet the French and English seemed to be in a competition to take over the world and in 1798 Napoleon Bonaparte invades Egypt on behalf of France. Egypt plays a huge role in the rivalry between France and England because later Brittan also claims Egypt, taking it away from France.

Famine In Japan

Much like in China, Japan experienced food shortages due to famines and could not support the growing populations which lead to rebellions in the 1830's.

Opium Wars 1836-1842, 1856-1858

Opium Wars revolved around Brittan selling Opium to China for it's highly valued goods and as result it began to tear down Chinese infrastructure by maintain peoples in high government under the influence and highly addicted. The Opium Wars were focused on banning the use of Opium and it's removal from China.

Comissioner Lin Zexu 1758-?

Born in 1785 as a low class peasant Lin became very scholarly and rose in Chinese ranks. In 1838 the Emperor selected Lin to enforce policies dealing with the Opium trade. He used Confucian ideals to avoid conflict and even used an emotional appeal on Queen Victoria attacking the judgement on providing something so detrimental to China's people.

Tanzimat Reforms 1838-1842

In the Ottoman Empire they created reforms, under Sultan Selim III, to reorganizing and updating the army and bringing in Eroupean Advisors and claimed it as "defensive modernization" yet the people thought it went against Islam and their interests. Then the Tanzimat Reforms included Westerized law, steamships, railroads, factories, and new schools in order to modernize the "Sick Man of Europe".

Commodore Perry (1794-1858)

Was an admiral sent to Japan in 1853 on behave of America demanding for humane treatment of castaways, the rights of American vessels to refuel and buy provisions, and open ports for trade and he was authorized to use force if necessary.

Taiping Uprising 1850-1864

Due to food shortages, the lower class of China was harshly taxed and there were brutal consequences as result of not paying (due to high unemployment rates) and hungry people who don't have jobs or are underpaid added to the fuel. The Qing dynasty was in decline and trade suffered giving way to crime. Peasant rebellions arose following charismatic leader decided by the Mandate of Heaven. Starting in 1850 the Taiping Uprising occurred yet these leaders were uniquely Christian opposing all other traditional religions. These leaders wanted a revolutionary change abolishing prostitution, private property, redistribution of land, the smoking opium, and gender roles in favor of woman equality. This rule ended at the hands of Qing loyalist and the help of Western power and the changes disappeared while China's economy suffered for 10 year to regain it's strength.

Hong Xiuquan (1814-1864)

One of the leaders of the Taiping Rebellion. He claimed to be the younger brother of Jesus sent to the world to cleanse it of demons and establish a "heavenly kingdom of great peace". He accused the Qing Dynasty of "poisoning China" and "defiling the throne".

Meiji Restoration 1868

After having to submit to the Americans or "foreign devils" demands a civil war broke out in Japan and was politically taken over by a group of young Samurai. Meiji meant Enlightened One and was also the name of the Emperor the Samurai were restoring power to.

Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895)

The Sino-Japanese War was fought between the Qing Empire of China and Japan over control of Korea.

Ethiopia Defeats Italy 1896

One of the examples of a successful rebellion against European rule, in this case Italy. The war was won by organization and African access to gunpowder.

Boxer Uprising (1898-1901)

An anti-foreign movement erupted in Northern China and the militia were known as the "Boxers". They attacked and killed Europeans and Chinese Christians. And the price of aid for this uprising from other countries lead to China being a dependent country under foreign control.

White Man's Burden

In 1899, the idea that white men (predominantly from England) had a moral obligation to help those viewed as inferior or less fortunate; such as those in third world counties that were viewed as less advanced and civilized. This idea fueled the need for Brittish conquest resulting in great wealth and many colonies across the world resulting in the saying, "The sun never sets on the Brittish Empire".

Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)

From the Russo-Japanese War Japan gained Taiwan and Korea and gained a territorial foothold in Manchuria. Henceforth Japan was established as a formidable military competitor after the wars with America and Russia.

Young Turk Takeover 1908

Separating from Islam, a group of young elites from the military as well as normal civilians, they advocated for secular public life in schools, courts, and law codes, and vouched for freedom of religion for modernization like that of the Europeans and changed the official language to Turkish,

Japan Annexes Korea 1910

After a Japanese goes in to bombard Korea only twice Korea surrenders to Japan without any extreme battles.

Chinese Revolution 1911

Marking the collapse of the 2 millennium of the Qing Dynasty by a rise of revolutionists. Marked the beginning of China's struggle for it's future.