100 Year War

Jose Barron & Nazaret Limon

Fact 1

The Hundred Years War was a series of wars between England and France. The background of the Hundred Years War went as far back as to the reign of William the Conqueror. When William the Conqueror became king in 1066 after his victory at the Battle of Hastings, he united England with Normandy in France.William ruled both as his own.

Fact 2

After a hiatus, Henry V of England renewed the war and proved victorious at Agincourt (1415), conquered Normandy (1417-1418), and then attempted to have himself crowned as the future king of France by the Treaty of Troyes (1420). But his military successes were not matched by political successes: although allied with the dukes of Burgundy, the majority of the French refused English domination.

Fact 3

English territory in France, which had been extensive since 1066 (see Hastings, Battle of) now remained confined to the Channel port of Calais (lost in 1558). France, at last free of the English invaders, resumed its place as the dominant state of western Europe.

Fact 4

(1340) The Battle of Sluys. The young King Edward personally "jousts" with Spanish ships allied to France. (He rams the enemy ships with his own). He successfully sinks several boats (including the one he is riding in), but he does win control of the waterways between France and England, opening up the opportunity for landing ships on the French coast.

Fact 5

(1347) The Battle of Calais. After the victory at Crecy, the English forces marched to Calais and began a successful siege that was to last a year. The French army tried to relieve Calais but retreated after finding the English position too strong. The English turned Calais into a operations base for further forays into France. It remained in English hands until 1558.

FACT 6

The principal feats of arms which mark the first years of John the Good's reign were the taking of St Jean d'Angely by the French in 1351, the defeat of the English near St Omer in 1352, and the English victory near Guines in the same year.

FACT 7

In 1369, on the pretext that Edward III had failed to observe the terms of the treaty of Bretigny, the King of France declared war against him. Du Guesclin, having been appointed Constable, defeated the English at Pontvallain in 1370, at Chize in 1373, and drove them from their possessions between the Loire and the Gironde, while the duke of Anjou retook part of Guienne.

FACT 8

the death of Edward III (June 21, 1377) Charles V recommenced war in Artois and Guienne and against Charles the Bad, but failed in his attempt to reunite Brittany and France. Du Guesclin, who had refused to march against his compatriots, died on the 13th of July 1380, and Charles V on the 16th of the following September.

FACT 9

Charles VI died shortly afterwards, on the 21st of October. His son, who styled himself Charles vll, suffered a series of defeats in the beginning of his reign: Cravant on the Yonne (1423), Verneuil (1424), St James de Beuvron (1426) and Rouvray (1429). Orleans, the last bulwark of royalty, had been besieged since the 12th of October 1428, and was on the point of surrender when joan of arc appeared.

FACT 10

The defeat of Sir Thomas Kyriel, one of Bedford's veteran captains, at Formigny in 1450, and the taking of Cherbourg, completed the conquest of the province. During this time Dunois in Guienne was taking Bordeaux and Bayonne. Guienne revolted against France, whereupon returned there with an army of 5000 men, but was vanquished and killed at Castillon on the 17th of July 1453. Bordeaux capitulated on the 9th of October, and the Hundred Years' War was terminated by the expulsion of the English, who were by this time so fully occupied with the war of the rose as to be unable to take the offensive against France anew.